NASA scientists have recreated the conditions in which life formed deep in the Earth's ocean four billions years ago, which may offer insights into possible habitats in the cosmos which could host alien life.
Astrobiologist Laurie Barge and her team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, are working to recognise life on other planets by studying the origins of life here on Earth.
Their research focuses on how the building blocks of life form in hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor.
To re-create hydrothermal vents in the lab, the team made their own miniature seafloors by filling beakers with mixtures that mimic Earth's primordial ocean.
These lab-based oceans act as nurseries for amino acids, organic compounds that are essential for life as we know it. Like Lego blocks, amino acids build on one another to form proteins, which make up all living things.
"Understanding how far you can go with just organics and minerals before you have an actual cell is really important for understanding what types of environments life could emerge from," Barge said in statement.
"Also, investigating how things like the atmosphere, the ocean and the minerals in the vents all impact this can help you understand how likely this is to have occurred on another planet," said Barge, lead investigator of the study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Found around cracks in the seafloor, hydrothermal vents are places where natural chimneys form, releasing fluid heated below Earth's crust.
When these chimneys interact with the seawater around them, they create an environment that is in constant flux, which is necessary for life to evolve and change.
This dark, warm environment fed by chemical energy from Earth may be the key to how life could form on worlds farther out in our solar system, far from the heat of the Sun.
"If we have these hydrothermal vents here on Earth, possibly similar reactions could occur on other planets," said Erika Flores, of JPL.
Researchers used ingredients commonly found in early Earth's ocean in their experiments. They combined water, minerals and the "precursor" molecules pyruvate and ammonia, which are needed to start the formation of amino acids.
They tested their hypothesis by heating the solution to 70 degrees Celsius—the same temperature found near a hydrothermal vent—and adjusting the pH to mimic the alkaline environment.
They also removed the oxygen from the mixture because, unlike today, early Earth had very little oxygen in its ocean. The team additionally used the mineral iron hydroxide, or "green rust," which was abundant on early Earth.
The green rust reacted with small amounts of oxygen that the team injected into the solution, producing the amino acid alanine and the alpha hydroxy acid lactate.
Alpha hydroxy acids are byproducts of amino acid reactions, but some scientists theorise they too could combine to form more complex organic molecules that could lead to life.
"We've shown that in geological conditions similar to early Earth, and maybe to other planets, we can form amino acids and alpha hydroxy acids from a simple reaction under mild conditions that would have existed on the seafloor," said Barge.
This line of research is important as scientists study worlds in our solar system and beyond that may host habitable environments.
Understanding how life could start in an ocean without sunlight would assist scientists in designing future exploration missions, as well as experiments that could dig under the ice to search for evidence of amino acids or other biological molecules.