Anita Pratap http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap.rss en Tue Aug 06 15:23:08 IST 2019 https://www.theweek.in/privacy-an-settlement.html the-showdown-is-on <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/07/30/the-showdown-is-on.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2020/7/30/63-showdown-new.jpg" /> <p>T he “Thucydides Trap” states that a rising power is doomed to conflict with the established hegemon. This theory has stood the test of time for 2,500 years. Experts now fear a doomed conflict between the United States and China, in a new version of the Cold War.</p> <p>Closing each other’s consulates is vintage Cold War. But the new twist is that China cannot be “contained” because it is deeply integrated into the global economy. As US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo admitted: “The USSR was closed off from the free world. Communist China is already within our borders.”</p> <p>And making full use of it—snooping, spying, selling and stealing. FBI Director Christopher A. Wray says China’s intellectual property theft is “so massive that it represents one of the largest wealth transfers in human history”. China’s thieving costs an estimated $250-$600 billion a year and robs millions of American jobs. The new US war chant: China is “raiding, not trading”.</p> <p>Two-thirds of Americans view China as a “major threat”, which explains the bipartisan consensus to get tough on China. Reducing American dependence by helping companies to shift out supply chains and isolating China commands public support. In the run up to the November presidential elections, China-bashing by both Donald Trump and Joe Biden will intensify, but the accelerating shift heralds worsening US-China relations thereafter.</p> <p>A shift has also taken place in China, away from former premier Deng Xiaoping’s mantra—“Hide your strength, bide your time, never take the lead.” Under Xi Jinping, China is done biding its time, rising peacefully. It has risen.</p> <p>It is flexing its muscle—military, economic and rhetorical—and cracking its whip within, in Hong Kong and Xinjiang, in its neighbourhood and beyond, and as far as Australia and Britain.</p> <p>In what will probably be called the “Pompeo Doctrine”, America’s top diplomat, who harbours presidential ambitions, proclaimed the new battle cry against China. Until now, US-China relations have been defined by a complex coupling of financial and economic mutual interdependence. In a seminal speech at the Richard Nixon Library and Museum, Pompeo outlined his decoupling doctrine by announcing an ideological war between “freedom and tyranny. The Chinese Communist Party is the enemy, the Chinese people the friend”.</p> <p>The Trump administration that has spurned, insulted and sanctioned its allies now beckons them to join an alliance of democratic nations to take on China. America still has friends across the world. So does China, which has drawn many countries into its Belt and Road Initiative. It also has allies in the corrupt, authoritarian world. The China bloc is not equal, but it cannot be dismissed.</p> <p>Experts say the emerging bipolar world is divided not so much by ideology as by the great firewall of technology. The west’s rejection of Huawei is the opening shot of the decoupling. 5G is the battle terrain for the two blocs. China has developed cutting-edge hard, soft and internet-related technologies involving social media, deliveries, payments, infrastructure and entertainment.</p> <p>The assumption that innovation thrives only in the petri dish of freedom, or that a Facebook can emerge only in America, is questionable. Chinese drones were deployed to take close-up videos of the burning Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris. The footage helped firemen pinpoint their water hoses and thus save the structure. The drones were made by Chinese student entrepreneurs in their university dorms. As Thucydides wrote, people being people, similar sort of things—from creativity to conflict—happen, again and again.</p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/07/30/the-showdown-is-on.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/07/30/the-showdown-is-on.html Thu Jul 30 15:47:13 IST 2020 when-pax-americana-wanes <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/07/16/when-pax-americana-wanes.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2020/7/16/americana-new.jpg" /> <p>An image sometimes captures an empire’s decline. The iconic photograph of nurses wearing garbage bags as protection against Covid-19 illustrates America’s waning. Decay is invisible in real time. Yet, the world watched as an unprepared and ill-equipped superpower was humbled by a tiny, invisible virus.</p> <p>But the virus, like Donald Trump, is not the cause but the catalyst that accelerates existing problems. Trump shredded the US-led international order single-handedly, resulting in a disgraceful free-for-all. Instead of championing global efforts, the US became a Covid-19 medicine-grabbing buccaneer. When an imperium is no longer admired, respected or feared, it begins to unravel. Like a supernova, a superpower collapses when it runs out of fuel, when contradictory forces within collide.</p> <p>To understand how empires end, one can study the last one that did—the Soviet Union. Empires implode because of “self-delusion”, observed Soviet dissident Andrei Amalrik. Magnificent visions collide with contradictory, grim ground realities. Soviet grandeur fuelled spacecrafts to Venus, but ordinary people struggled for toilet paper.</p> <p>Delusions of American exceptionalism is pervasive. Polls show 90 per cent of Americans believe egalitarianism is the top national ideal. Yet, studies confirm that the US is one of the most unequal societies in the world—stratified by racial injustice, rising poverty, declining mortality rate, plummeting industrial employment spanning five decades, collapsing infrastructure, failing schools, soaring deficits, staggering debt, unsafe cities, deteriorating health systems, outdated gun laws and popular pandemic beliefs that facemasks violate civil liberties and “Jesus is my vaccine”. &nbsp;America still has the world’s richest people, best universities, companies, entertainment and is the hub of excellence and innovation. But the cracks caused by these contradictory forces have widened to chasms, deep and structural. Is this damage repairable? Is there a moral or economic glue to fix this polarised nation?</p> <p>It is difficult because ideology fails the US exactly as it did the Soviet Union. Once “sacred”, capitalism has evidently gone rogue. It has spawned plutocrats who get richer by stymying scrutiny, blocking regulation and rigging democracy by engineering favourable laws. Communism had its proletariat, capitalism has its “precariat”—an underclass of the exploited—as described by author Martin Sandbu. Inhabiting this parallel universe are essential workers like drivers, cleaners and care workers who live precariously on temporary jobs, low wages and erratic shifts. The poor live on prayer. As Bulgarian political scientist Ivan Krastev says, “The poor do not fear the end of time, they fear the end of the month.” Even US allies agree that the “idea” of America as prosperous, powerful, free and fair has run out of fuel. Disillusioned with toxic American capitalism, they turn to Scandinavian socialism or as economist Thomas Piketty labels “participatory socialism”.</p> <p>Like massive stars, empires self-destruct, with peripheries breaking away, leaving behind a contracting core, what astronomers call “the white dwarf”. The earlier empires have left behind their geographical dwarfs—Britain, Russia, Turkey, Italy and Austria. Pax Americana will end, but the United States will survive. But will it remain united or will it fragment like all previous empires? Liberal California on the periphery is the world’s fifth biggest economy; already there is talk of “Calexit”.</p> <p>A supernova is a dying star’s “last hurrah”. But an empire’s collapse is rarely marked by a thunderous explosion. The end meanders in drips and drabs, in everyday failures, in sad whimpers and pathetic sights, unheard, unnoticed, unremembered. Like bankruptcy, the decline of an empire happens gradually, then suddenly.</p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/07/16/when-pax-americana-wanes.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/07/16/when-pax-americana-wanes.html Thu Jul 16 17:17:21 IST 2020 this-is-america <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/07/02/this-is-america.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2020/7/2/america-new.jpg" /> <p>During the pandemic, the rich got richer. Not only billionaires like Amazon’s Jeff Bezos or Microsoft’s Bill Gates, whose goods and services enjoyed unprecedented demand. The rich got richer because they could not spend. New research shows that spending by the top 25 per cent of American earners’ dropped by 17 per cent; in low income groups it fell only by 4 per cent.</p> <p>The rich saved money as they worked and played at home. But the livelihood of many low-wage workers depends on the lifestyle and whims of the rich. While landscaping and swimming pool services thrived, small businesses in the posh neighbourhoods—wine bars, sushi restaurants, Pilates studios, and gourmet boutiques—suffered a 70 per cent revenue drop and a 65 per cent job loss.</p> <p>Research by Opportunity Insights headed by Harvard’s Raj Chetty assessed the economic impact of Covid-19 and the US government’s response. They analysed digital data obtained from credit card processors, payroll firms, government agencies and private companies using Big Data. Dissected data generates interactive maps, charts and infographics that are used to examine details and understand patterns. Chetty, 40, whose parents emigrated three decades ago, is described as a “star economist” destined to win a Nobel Prize.</p> <p>Studying consumption patterns is kosher—it is economics, capitalism and utterly American. Two-thirds of the United States economy is fuelled by consumption. But Chetty establishes the moral significance of Big Data, using it to expose the underbelly of injustice, inequality and income-segregation. His “Opportunity Atlas” map colour-codes rich and poor neighbourhoods across the US, revealing that poverty is concentrated in the former slave-owning regions. There is an oasis of white affluence in towns like Charlotte, fringed by ghettos of black misery. His research proves that moving children to better neighbourhoods improves their future income. The younger the child, the greater the benefit. The children of one per-centers are 10 times more likely to become inventors even when their childhood math scores were the same as the poor children’s. Chetty calls these underprivileged children “Lost Einsteins”, cursed by their poor neighbourhoods. Today’s street protests underline Leonardo da Vinci’s 500-year old observation: “Inequality is the cause of all local movements.”</p> <p>Chetty’s data show that the government response to Covid-19 was largely ineffective. The $500 billion support to big companies did not save jobs. It should have been given to small businesses. The $1,200 stimulus cheques bearing Donald Trump’s name went to millions of affluent housewives, expatriates and even dead Americans. Chetty warns against forcibly restarting the economy. As long as the rich are afraid of the virus, they will not go out and spend money. So the government must bring the virus under control.</p> <p>The economy will eventually return, but millions of low-paid American jobs may not. Previous shocks—globalisation, offshoring, deindustrialisation—reveal that workers find relocation and retraining difficult. In the 2000s, a million manufacturing jobs were lost in the American Rust Belt to cheap Chinese imports. Unable to find new jobs, non-college-educated, middle-aged white men became addicted to alcohol and opioids, resulting in “Deaths of Despair”.</p> <p>Researchers despair over the ruins of the American Dream. The dream extols the ideal that regardless of where they are born, capable children can succeed and earn more than their parents. Chetty busts this myth. He has shown that children born in 1940 had a 90 per cent chance of earning more than their parents. In 1990, only 50 per cent stood that chance. How then does one achieve the American Dream? Chetty says: Move to Canada.</p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/07/02/this-is-america.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/07/02/this-is-america.html Thu Jul 02 18:05:00 IST 2020 racism-touch-up-and-rip-up <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/06/18/racism-touch-up-and-rip-up.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2020/6/18/57-Racism-new.jpg" /> <p>The brutal police killing of George Floyd blew the lid off a global problem. Racism exists in every country and it has nothing to do with race. Science disproves that blacks or any other ethnic groups are inferior, because all humans carry the same genes. Racism is man-made, which explains why it thrives even in Africa that is full of blacks and in India where there are no blacks. This “ism” is a socio-cultural ideology designed to devalue, dominate and discriminate against the vulnerable underclass—blacks, dalits, Muslims, Jews, minorities, migrants or women.</p> <p>Racism, sexism, Islamophobia, anti-Semitism, xenophobia, all sprout from the same cursed root: “the will to exercise power, the need to control”, as Nobel Laureate Toni Morrison explains. The tendency that makes some men want to control their wives is not very different from the pathology of a majority community wishing to dominate a minority group.</p> <p>Humans are not naturally racist, but are evolutionarily programmed to be groupists. In certain situations, the narratives about the “stranger” as a “threat” escalate to demonising the “other” as contemptible, unclean and ignorant. This becomes an existential necessity in order to lionise the dominant group. One needs the “other” to feel privileged, blessed and superior—individually, institutionally and ideologically. From the clay of subjugation, the identity of the oppressor is moulded.</p> <p>Oppressors subjugated black communities through the centuries. In mid-19th century Ohio, 25-year-old black slave woman Margaret Garner killed her children when they were sold and about to be taken to another plantation. She wanted to spare them the agonies she herself endured. Her case went to trial, but she was not given the death penalty as she was not considered human with human responsibilities such as motherhood. Blacks were useful, not quite like cattle, yet not sufficiently human.</p> <p>Racists misused both science and religion to justify enslaving the blacks. In 1851, the New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal published a report on the “Diseases and physical peculiarities of the Negro race”. It claimed blacks were prone to drapetomania (a disease that made them run away) and dysaesthesia aethiopica (laziness, due to which their shrunken lungs were chronically oxygen-deficient). Never mind that the first disease contradicts the second.</p> <p>Such prejudices still fester with popular assumptions that laziness makes blacks obese. Working multiple shifts to make ends meet, impoverished blacks have neither the money nor the energy to go to gyms. They live on cheap and fattening junk food. Job insecurity and stress contribute to ailments ranging from hypertension to diabetes. Not surprisingly, blacks and migrants who suffer these underlying conditions were hardest hit by Covid-19. As a Harvard study reveals, ZIP code is a better predictor of health than genetic code. Where you live matters, and not for snobbish reasons. A poor neighbourhood dooms its inhabitants to shoddy education, scant job opportunities, bad housing, drugs and crime—all of which undermine health.</p> <p>For decades, books and Hollywood films romanticised or “white-washed” American slavery—the jolly matronly housekeeper, the happy handyman, the joyous children singing in cotton fields. That’s all gone now. The solution to the current protests to exorcise racism includes essential police reforms. Equally important is ending the culture of white impunity by enforcing the law and securing convictions. Racism is systemic and can be uprooted only by upgrading the ZIP codes of poor black neighbourhoods by investing in education, health care, job opportunities, safety, sport and leisure activities. Otherwise, as before, blacks will remain banished in the place where they belong, homeless in their home.</p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/06/18/racism-touch-up-and-rip-up.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/06/18/racism-touch-up-and-rip-up.html Mon Jun 22 08:32:05 IST 2020 a-trump-of-lies <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/06/04/a-trump-of-lies.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2020/6/4/Trump-of-lies.jpg" /> <p>Why are we still shocked by President Donald Trump, his falsehoods, distortions and exaggerations? Through the ages, in mythology and in history, Gods and men have lied. One of humankind’s oldest tendencies, lying ranges from the harmless, arousing fun and laughter, to the vicious, resulting in grief and death. Literature captures the rainbow spectrum of lies, from dark to light, from hilarity to the terrors of its consequences. An enduring dramatisation is Iago’s cruel lies that draw Shakespeare’s Othello to suicide.</p> <p>Research typically focuses on the liar—the motivations, the character flaws and the after-effects. But it does not equally analyse the “lied-to” or the victim. There is an almost predatory relationship here, with the liar exploiting the vulnerabilities of the lied-to, not necessarily abusively, but in a psychologically manipulative manner. The liar becomes the “re-affirmer”, telling what the lied-to wants to hear or already suspects. Only if it hits a fertile, receptive mind can the lie strike root and germinate into a monster of belief in the victim’s head. As Othello shows, lies unleash devastating consequences when they awaken the victim’s dormant demons of jealousy. Absolving himself, Iago says of Othello, “I told him what I thought, and told no more/ Than what he found himself was apt and true.”</p> <p>Trump’s lies, perhaps, should be seen in this context. He is talking only to his base, not to CNN, educated Americans or the world. He is not lying, he is telling what his base wants to hear, what they believe to be “apt and true”. Left behind by globalisation, digitalisation and offshoring, alienated and stressed, Trump’s base clings to conspiracy theories to explain the downturn in their lives. They fully endorse Trump’s attacks on the liberal establishment, the intelligentsia, Hollywood, mainstream media and social media giants. In daring to filter his misleading messages to his base, Twitter earned Trump’s blistering wrath.</p> <p>Rising like the coronavirus death toll, Trump’s falsehoods are nearing 20,000. “There has never been such a serial liar in the Oval Office,” says presidential historian Douglas Brinkley. “Trump lies as a policy.” Trump appals truth-seekers, but every one of his lies cements the bond between him and his base. This explains why despite his follies, Trump’s ratings never dropped below 35 per cent.</p> <p>Reading between Trump’s lies, his motivation appears to be to win admiration or deny failure. He is not the first or the last to lie for those reasons. “Lying politician” is a 200-year-old British phrase that still survives, though many now see it as a tautology—a repetition in terms. Lies resonate because they arouse emotions. Both literature and history unveil the drama of unpredictable outcomes when emotions run high. “Even the buses lied” is a popular British mantra to describe the Brexiteer’s campaign to leave the European Union. Boris Johnson even faced a lawsuit for his falsehoods that were plastered on London buses. The public knew these claims were false. Yet, not only did Brexiteers win the referendum, Johnson secured a landslide victory in last year’s elections.</p> <p>Analysts’ explanation is that we have entered the post-truth age. But, could it be that voters are battling a bigger, bitter truth—a rigged system entrenched by a corrupt elite of dishonest politicians, tycoons and journalists that perpetuates disparity and discrimination? The web of inequality, injustice and deceit has spun through the centuries. Lies are the silken threads that weave the gossamer snares of deception and defeat, vanity and victory.</p> <p>The age of lies is without beginning and it is without end. &nbsp;</p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/06/04/a-trump-of-lies.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/06/04/a-trump-of-lies.html Thu Jun 04 16:04:17 IST 2020 an-unusual-cult-figure <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/05/22/an-unusual-cult-figure.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2020/5/22/55-An-unusual-cult-figure-new.jpg" /> <p>Tall and handsome in a craggy sort of way, Dr Anders Tegnell commands the highest popularity ratings in Sweden. Youngsters tattoo his face on their bodies. But he is no rock star. He is a bespectacled, boring bureaucrat. Tegnell, 64, is Sweden’s chief epidemiologist—the architect of Covid-19 ‘Lockdown Lite’, which made his nation the world’s most fascinating outlier. Says prominent scientist Johan Giesecke: “Sweden is doing it right. Everyone else is wrong.”</p> <p>While most countries imprisoned citizens in their homes for two months, Sweden targeted shutting down only places acutely vulnerable to Covid-19. Care homes and universities were closed, but schools, offices, factories, shops and cafes remained open throughout. People were instructed to work from home if possible, restrict travel and maintain two-metre distance in all public places, including restaurants. Sweden’s economy never froze.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Tegnell’s strategy counted firstly on Swedish citizens’ fabled sense of duty and compliance. It also helps that the Swedes are not touchy-feely, hugging and kissing, like the Italians and the Spaniards. Secondly, the authorities aimed to protect the public health system from becoming overburdened.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Tegnell, whose 30-year career in public health includes field experience from the 1995 Ebola epidemic, says health policies should be “sustainable and holistic”. “Confining schoolchildren for weeks harms them mentally and psychologically”. Likewise, shutting the economy “is a terrible option because losing jobs is extremely dangerous to health,” he says.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>It is too early to determine if Tegnell’s way is the better global role model. Sweden’s Covid-19 death rate is way above Norway’s and Denmark’s, but far below that of other European countries like Britain, France, Spain, Italy or Belgium. The elderly account for 50 per cent of the death toll. Still, the public health system was not overwhelmed, having 20 per cent spare capacity in ICU beds even at the pandemic’s peak. Sweden’s economy did not suffer a cardiac arrest, but shrank six per cent mainly due to supply disruptions as other countries imposed severe lockdowns.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>President Donald Trump would happily import Tegnell and his ‘Lockdown Lite’ strategy to replace his own expert, Anthony Fauci, who advocates total shutdowns. But Tegnell’s model cannot be replicated in the United States. Science-trusting, law-abiding Swedes respect authority, unlike the gun-slinging American protesters. The pandemic also exposes how inadequate the American public health system is.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Experts will surely examine if the world did the right thing in imitating China’s sledgehammer lockdown. Scientists say we must learn to live with this virus. Having achieved a higher immunity rate, Sweden can probably cope better with future Covid-19 outbreaks.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>But Tegnell has strong critics. Accusing him of “gambling”, Dr Stefan Hanson, a Swedish infectious disease expert, said: “You cannot take risks with people’s lives if you do not know what risks you are taking.” Tegnell’s strategy was attacked by 2,000 Swedish scientists, but over one lakh Swedes joined Anders Tegnell fan clubs, which are sprouting like dandelions in spring. Fans see him as a hero who had the courage to be the lone voice, steadfastly safeguarding health and economy. Praised WHO’s Michael Ryan: “I think there may be lessons to be learned from our colleagues in Sweden.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Tegnell finds his cult status “absurd”. His three daughters think the media hoopla is hilarious, especially a fashion magazine’s analysis of his dress sense—or lack thereof. With his maroon pullovers and brown jackets, his matter-of-fact comments and contrarian views, his fan clubs and daring strategy, Anders Tegnell is no boring bureaucrat after all.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/05/22/an-unusual-cult-figure.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/05/22/an-unusual-cult-figure.html Fri May 22 16:57:23 IST 2020 credibility-at-stake <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/05/08/credibility-at-stake.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2020/5/8/51-Credibility-at-stake-new.jpg" /> <p>I really screwed up.” It is a startling confession from any official, but astonishing when it comes from the CEO of the world’s largest sovereign wealth fund, popularly known as Norway’s Oil Fund. Abjectly apologising to his staff for returning from a $3 million luxury seminar in Philadelphia in a private jet, the fund’s contrite CEO Yngve Slyngstad messaged: “This was not in line with the modest profile of our brand. It was a lack of good judgment. I am truly sorry for letting our organisational culture down.” That culture forbids accepting even a free cup of coffee.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The bigger problem is that the “dream” seminar and jet were arranged by Slyngstad’s selected successor, Nicolai Tangen, a London-based hedge fund billionaire, who takes over as the fund’s CEO in September. The Oil Fund is a global gold standard for its prudent and ethical investments. It invests revenues from Norway’s huge oil and gas resources to benefit current and future generations of Norwegians. The $1 trillion fund owns 1.3 per cent of all listed shares in the world. It takes moderate risks—serving its higher purpose is more important than maximising returns.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Experts say Tangen, 54, is unsuitable for the job. He is accused of seducing officials, ministers, diplomats and cultural czars with his wealth. Comments Norwegian parliamentarian Kari Elisabeth Kaski: “This is how economic elites try to buy power.” Famous anti-corruption campaigner Eva Joly warns: “The whole recruitment process is corrupted.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Tangen was not on the published list of candidates, but he sprung upon the public at the height of the Covid-19 lockdown. Analysts say the fund should not be headed by a successful, risk-taking hedge fund manager, that too one with assets in tax havens—in Jersey, British Virgin and Cayman Islands. They say Tangen’s use of tax havens and trusts to avoid taxes has “an unfortunate signal effect”. Criticises Joly: “His appointment is catastrophic for the fund’s credibility in the international fight against tax havens.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Anti-corruption activists have been crusading for years to shut down tax havens—those “sunny places for shady people” as author Nicholas Shaxson describes. They are primary conduits for money laundering, smuggling, parking ill-gotten wealth and tax evasion. If tax havens are eradicated, governments could invest the recovered tax revenue to create jobs and infrastructure. But the global elite ensures lawmakers keep tax havens legal to draw distinctions between tax avoidance (legal) and tax evasion (illegal). Says Kaski: “Tax havens are legal. But that does not make them moral. They are a problem for the global economy. The Oil Fund is needed to lead the fight against tax havens.” Laws and loopholes enrich the wealthy. As a foreign resident in London, Tangen does not pay taxes either to Norway or Britain, proving US President Donald Trump’s dictum: Only idiots pay taxes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>But when he moves to Oslo, Tangen will have to pay a yearly property tax of about $7 million. His annual salary is $1 million, meaning he would pay more in taxes in a year than he would earn during a six-year tenure. “I am not doing it for the money,” he says, stating the obvious. The prestige of having been the boss of the world’s biggest fund will be major capital for his post-CEO investments.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>After 12 years of faultless stewardship, outgoing CEO Slyngstad muses: “This is like mountain climbing. It is while climbing down, when you are tired and think that you have made it, that you fall.” Tangen falls even before he begins his climb, as the Oil Fund, Norway’s pride and glory, faces the biggest test in its 22-year history.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/05/08/credibility-at-stake.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/05/08/credibility-at-stake.html Fri May 08 17:52:15 IST 2020 european-union-divided-by-a-virus <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/04/23/european-union-divided-by-a-virus.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2020/4/23/53-European.jpg" /> <p>We have witnessed the coronavirus’s capacity to ravage lives and livelihood. Experts wonder if it can ravage and unravel the European Union, the world’s biggest and mightiest bloc. The person thinking this unthinkable thought is none other than French President Emmanuel Macron, EU’s doughtiest defender. In a Financial Times interview, he warns that the EU “as a political project will collapse” if the EU’s richer northern countries fail to bail out the pandemic-stricken southern members of Italy and Spain.</p> <p>When Covid-19 erupted, instead of showing solidarity, EU countries distanced themselves from each other, closed borders and struggled to control the pandemic in their own countries. Italy did not even get masks from the EU, making anti-EU sentiments as lethally contagious as the virus. A poll revealed 88 per cent of Italians feel the EU failed them, prompting European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen to publicly apologise for “not offering a helping hand”. With an eye on his own nation’s right-wingers, Macron predicts the virus will fuel populist anger against the EU in Italy and Spain, unless the bloc shows solidarity.</p> <p>But solidarity is just another word for money. Rich, financially disciplined northern countries like Germany and the Netherlands support giving emergency relief to the southern states—€100 billion to protect jobs. But they say the pandemic cannot be an excuse to waive loan repayments. Long before Covid-19 struck, Italy’s debt was unsustainable. Observes Italian investment banker Alessandro Ciravegna, “The Italian economy has underperformed on almost every metric for decades, due in large part to structural inefficiencies that Italians acknowledge but simply refuse to address.” For example, about 60 million tourists travel to Italy every year and Italy has a large global diaspora. Yet Alitalia has never been solvent. A thriving black economy means low tax revenues. Adds Ciravegna, “Foreigners who have ever had to deal with any part of the judicial system run and never return.”</p> <p>The protestant northerners are seen as frugal, hardworking and law-abiding. The southerners, lazy and wasteful. Former Dutch Finance Minister Jeroen Dijsselbloem famously told southern Europeans, “I attribute exceptional importance to solidarity. But you also have obligations. You cannot spend all the money on drinks and women and then ask for help.” Southerners say the “conditionalities” attached to the funding are unacceptable, while northerners retort that even when parents pay for children’s education, it is on the condition that they attend classes and study hard. Pleads Ana Botin, executive chairman of the Spanish Santander Bank, “We are in this together. Countries with the broadest shoulders should carry more of the burden.”</p> <p>Stoking the north-south stereotypes, Italy’s nationalist leader Mateo Salvini warned that if Germans do not give money, Italians would not buy BMWs. Germans blew a fuse at the notion that they must work full shifts in their factories, pay taxes and then donate their tax revenue so that Italians can cruise in BMWs. They asked where Italian solidarity was when German workers sacrificed pay hikes to make their economy healthy again.</p> <p>This infectious virus, like a secret agent, enters through chinks in the armour. It cannot create cracks in the EU, but it can certainly widen existing ones, especially when the bloc lacks the immunity of social cohesion. Even today, there is no European national hero or monument that member states can agree on to adorn the Euro banknotes. Currently, they feature non-existent classical buildings. Two-thirds of Italians now feel EU membership is a hindrance. “This crisis is the EU’s biggest test yet,” warns Botin. One of EU’s founding fathers, Jean Monnet had said, “Europe will be forged in crisis.” It can also fall apart.</p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/04/23/european-union-divided-by-a-virus.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/04/23/european-union-divided-by-a-virus.html Thu Apr 23 16:05:35 IST 2020 realities-of-a-post-pandemic-world <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/04/09/realities-of-a-post-pandemic-world.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2020/4/9/59post-pandemic%20world.jpg" /> <p>Though 2,000 times smaller than a grain of salt, the coronavirus flies straight into the heart of darkness, and greatness, exposing the true character of peoples and nations. Among world leaders, German Chancellor Angela Merkel scored high, staying true to her character—wise and restrained—speaking little and doing much to prepare her country. Thus, Germany had spare ICU capacity to treat Italian and French patients.</p> <p>At the other end was Donald Trump staying true to his character—denying Covid-19, blaming opponents, sowing confusion, contradicting himself and stealing credit, face masks and vaccine-development research. The continent’s populist leaders took cues from Trump. Rather than heed medical experts, they spun conspiracy theories, blamed media and vaunted their exceptionalism. Mexican President Andrés Manuel López Obrador mingled with crowds, shook hands, hugged, kissed and playfully bit a child’s cheek, claiming, “We should hug. Nothing will happen.”</p> <p>Forget social distancing, Nicaragua’s Daniel Ortega spearheaded a public rally proclaiming victory over the virus. Jair Bolsonaro, Brazil’s president, first dismissed Covid-19 as a “fantasy”. When it began disrupting the economy, he got furious. Urging people to return to their jobs, he said, “The virus is there. We need to face it like a man, dammit. We will all die someday.” That is not comforting to British Prime Minister Boris Johnson, felled and hospitalised by the virus. In contrast, New York’s Democrat Governor Andrew Cuomo became the much-admired ‘Man of Action’ with his empathy and toughness. He could even unseat Trump.</p> <p>In some countries, people sing, applaud and blare horns to express their gratitude to medics. But in Brazil and Spain, people bang pots and pans to express anti-government discontent. For months, the gilets jaunes (yellow vests) in France have been protesting to get financial support for the underclass. The pandemic disproportionately hurts this segment that is not privileged to work from home: shop assistants, delivery drivers, garbage collectors, medics, food factory workers—the frontline warriors preventing societal collapse.</p> <p>Elites salute them, but the hypocrisy is blinding. These “heroes” are among the lowest paid, often on contract, with no job security, no health insurance, no holidays, no pension and no future. “It is an eye-opener,” says Chloé Morin, analyst with the Jean-Jaurès Foundation. “The existence of social inequalities is not new, but it is amplified by the current crisis. The people who make the economy work are poorly paid and poorly regarded.” France’s Libération newspaper asked, “Does the prestige and income of the wealthy correspond to their social utility?” The virus exposed human parasites and corporate shamelessness. BMW, Daimler and Volkswagen planned to give €7.5 billion in dividends to investors while taking government subsidy to pay two lakh workers. German socialist leader Carsten Schneider exploded: “This is the ugly face of capitalism.”</p> <p>Covid-19 snapped supply chains, making western countries regret their excessive reliance on low-cost China in pursuit of corporate efficiency and profits. European economist Beata Javorcik predicts, “Coronavirus will not end globalisation. But it will change it.” Countries now equate self-sufficiency with national security. French Finance Minister Bruno Le Maire argues, “This is protection, not protectionism.” Outsource to EU countries, not Asia, is his corona-exit strategy. He claims, “With this crisis, EU has a historic opportunity to become an economic and political superpower between the US and China.” Actually, the virus severely tests EU solidarity. Italy got no protective gear from EU members. Supplies arrived from Russia and China. True to character, China tried to extract propaganda mileage, but much of the equipment was defective.</p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/04/09/realities-of-a-post-pandemic-world.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/04/09/realities-of-a-post-pandemic-world.html Thu Apr 09 15:46:56 IST 2020 goops-oomph-factor <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/03/26/goops-oomph-factor.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2020/3/26/55-gwyneth-paltrow.jpg" /> <p>Who would buy an expensive bottle of “vampire repellant spray”? If you believe in vampires, cheap garlic should do the trick. Oscar-winning actor Gwyneth Paltrow’s luxury lifestyle company Goop peddles a vampire “psychic mist” that uses “gem healing and aromatic therapeutic oils” to banish evil spirits, expel negative energy and shield buyers from the bad vibes of people near them. If the boss is the vampire, they do not need the spray now, when working from home. If it is their husband, then no repellant can help when they are quarantined together.</p> <p>Goop’s other outlandish offerings include coffee enemas (presumably to awaken the inner you), chill child (to mollify your frisky kid into a furry lamb), a hyped “90-second breath-workout” that takes six minutes, $1,20,000 (Rs91 lakh) gold dumbbells (guaranteed to reduce your bank balance if not your weight), $2,300 (Rs1.75 lakh) gilded playing cards (to kill time when you have arrived but are going nowhere), $43,200 (Rs32.86 lakh) chandelier earrings (to show you have pierced glass ceilings), Devi steamer seat (to send vapours to body parts that have never seen sunshine) and more. Several other products cannot be mentioned in a family magazine.</p> <p>Like its silly sprays, exotic elixirs, pampering potions and gobsmacking gizmos, the company’s very name is idiotic. Goop. It means nothing, it stands for nothing. Paltrow claims someone told her that successful internet companies have two ‘O’s in their names. Like, Facebook and Google. Never mind Netflix, Amazon, Uber—that is an irrelevant detail in her saga. For customers yearning for the elusive, the unknown, the instant fix, the manic mantra, the luxury purr, the magic cure, Goop it is. This is the La La Land of the loopy one percenters. Escape in a bottle. Dreams in a jar. Hope in a tube. The sorcery ends with the last squeeze. Some customers go away, others come back for more.</p> <p>Paltrow launched Goop from her kitchen. Scientists wish it had stayed there. She began with a “homespun” newsletter that swelled into a major enterprise, hawking health, beauty, fashion, accessories, décor, gadgets, books, alternative therapies and celebrity cruises. At Goop’s “health summits”, patients give testimonies about how love in the brain brought back dead people or positive emotions cured cancer (neglecting to mention their chemotherapy).</p> <p>Goop is the scientific community’s four-letter word. Experts groaned when Netflix recently launched a docuseries on Goop’s psychedelic and energy exorcism cures for physical and mental illnesses. An aghast Simon Stevens, head of Britain’s National Health Service, said Goop’s “dubious wellness products and dodgy procedures” posed “considerable health risk”to the public, adding “people’s natural concern for their health, and particularly about that of their loved ones, makes this particularly fertile ground for quacks, charlatans and cranks”.</p> <p>To banish scientists’bad vibes, Goop sprays disclaimers on merchandise that customers should take medical advice. But then it uses scientific jargon to beguile customers into thinking these snake oils are cutting-edge medical innovations. Canadian health-policy maker Tim Caulfield observes, “As people become more science-literate, pseudoscience has adopted scientific language to justify itself.” Paltrow praises an alternative treatment to Lyme disease that uses “quantum science”. Impressive, but doubtful that physicists believe subatomic particles can cure bacterial infection.</p> <p>Susceptibility of the gullible is Paltrow’s currency, controversy her best salesman. “I get more eyeballs,” she says. More eyeballs, more sales. Experts attack her goofy, loony products. But items like vampire mist have helped Goop become a $250 million (Rs1,900 crore) wellness empire, proof that the double ‘O’ voodoo works for her.</p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/03/26/goops-oomph-factor.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/03/26/goops-oomph-factor.html Thu Mar 26 16:18:08 IST 2020 priti-patel-poster-girl-or-piranha <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/03/13/priti-patel-poster-girl-or-piranha.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2020/3/13/30-Priti-Patel-new.jpg" /> <p>Small, scrappy and spunky, Priti Patel is a few short steps away from 10 Downing Street. As Britain’s home minister, Patel could conceivably become the prime minister. But now her prospects are fading and she has only herself to blame.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Born in London to Gujarati parents who fled Idi Amin’s Uganda in the 1960s, Priti Patel, 47, grew up into a headstrong Tory who likes strong-arm tactics. As home minister, she is hardline on immigration, counter-terrorism and policing, wanting criminals “to literally feel terror” at the thought of breaking the law. She favours using force to disperse peaceful protestors. She enthusiastically enforces immigration laws that would have denied entry to her parents.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Inevitably, Patel’s drive to push through draconian policies face British bureaucratic push back, reminiscent of the brilliant BBC comedy Yes Minister. Her home secretary, Sir Philip Rutnam, regularly stymied her proposals citing legal hurdles. Nicknaming him ‘Mr. No’, and ‘Eeyore’, the ponderous, stubborn donkey in Winnie the Pooh, Patel’s aides allegedly told the media that Rutnam should be fired for incompetence and relieved of his pension.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Accusing Patel of lying, bullying, and running a “vicious, orchestrated campaign” against him, Rutnam resigned and is suing the government. He said employees accuse Patel of “swearing, belittling people, making unreasonable and repeated demands”. Patel heads one of the busiest Brexit delivery departments, having to implement new immigration, border inspection and IT rules, while fighting crime and cyberwar.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>With Patel, it is “my way or the highway”, and Rutnam is not her first victim. She ordered that the home ministry’s communications officer, Andy Tighe, be sacked on Christmas Eve. Rutnam refused and eventually both officials resigned. So did Mark Thomson, who, as head of UK Visas and Immigration, found Patel’s demands “uncomfortable” and her policies “mad”. He believed her punitive plan to tackle radicalised youth was “outdated, flawed, based on past failed policies and not on research”, which clearly shows that adopting “positive psychology” is better at diverting youths from terrorism to productive activities. One government employee “collapsed” following a meeting with Patel, while another “overdosed” after Patel told her to “get lost”. The fired official sued and got a £25,000 settlement. “Sack, sue, settle” follows in Patel’s wake. She is known to storm out of her office, shouting “Why is everyone so f**king useless?”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>But she certainly is very useful to her political bosses, a poster girl with her Euro-scepticism and ruthless pursuit of hardline Brexit policies. Supporters say she is hardworking and charming; critics say she is rude and divisive. An inquiry will examine Patel’s bullying behaviour, but the government backs her and not the complaining officials. Prime Minister Boris Johnson called her a “superb minister doing an outstanding job”, while cabinet minister Michael Gove said, “We make no apology for having strong ministers in place.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>A bit too strong, sometimes. When she was international development minister in Theresa May’s cabinet, Patel appointed her marketing consultant husband, Alex Sawyer, to run her office part-time on £25,000 a year salary. He did not last long. Eventually, Patel had to resign for holding secret meetings with Israeli politicians without informing the Foreign Office. According to urban legend, when she left, officials sang “Ding-dong! The witch is gone”.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Pop psychologists would suggest Patel suffers from Napoleon complex—short people who are overly aggressive or domineering. So how does her extremely tall husband analyse his controversial wife? Says Sawyer, “She is quite small and combative. She is my personal piranha.” As long as she is described as a witch or a violent fish, Patel will find it hard to occupy 10 Downing Street.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/03/13/priti-patel-poster-girl-or-piranha.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/03/13/priti-patel-poster-girl-or-piranha.html Fri Mar 13 15:01:44 IST 2020 cold-blooded-or-just-nuts <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/02/28/cold-blooded-or-just-nuts.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2020/2/28/67-Cold-blooded-or-just-nuts-new.jpg" /> <p>Right-wing massacres follow a pattern in the west. The killers are young, male, white, xenophobic lone wolves. Socially isolated but active online, their radicalisation incubates in cyberspace. Muslims, Jews, immigrants, liberals and asylum-seekers are their victims.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>In his 24-page manifesto, racist killer Tobias R. (German law proscribes using their surname) claimed the world’s population could be halved by first “rough” and then “fine cleansing the inferior and destructive” races from the Middle East, Africa and Asia, including India and Pakistan. He shot dead nine Kurds, Turks and Africans in Hanau, near Frankfurt, before killing his mother and himself.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>White supremacists have always existed in Germany, but since the far right Alternative für Deutschland’s (AfD) dramatic victories in national and state elections over the past two years, right-wing violence has increased substantially. Targets are legitimised, taboos broken and racist slurs normalised in some circles. To eradicate migrants, AfD leader Björn Höcke suggests “well-tempered cruelty” and “a strong broom to clear the pigsty”. Hitler’s extermination of Jews, his belief in an Aryan super race continue to inspire neo Nazis across the world.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>From Norway to New Zealand, there is another common trait shared by these xenophobic terrorists: an obsession with conspiracy theories. Tobias believed he was under government surveillance since childhood, blaming this for his inability to have relationships with women.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Conspiracy theory researcher Travis View said the gunman’s rants suggest he was influenced by a hash of paranoid conspiracies, including QAnon, the bizarre right-wing conspiracy theory, which disdains mainstream media, attributes vaccines and viruses to fiendish plots and believes Donald Trump is heroically fighting a satanic “Deep State” that includes Hillary Clinton and Tom Hanks. For its disciples who believe they are custodians of secret knowledge, QAnon is a political cult, imbuing their life with meaning, purpose, entertainment and superiority.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>But Tobias also deviated. He believed he masterminded Trump’s policies and slogans. Said View: “That’s not ‘Q’. They think that Trump is a super-genius. They would not be so arrogant to suppose that they could give Trump—God emperor—ideas.” Trump has invited several conspiracy mongers to the White House and retweeted many QAnon posts, giving them lift and legitimacy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Trump has now appointed his “attack dog”, loyalist Richard Grenell, who was US Ambassador to Germany, as the acting director of National Intelligence. Ambassador Grenell aspired to “empower right-wing forces across Europe.” Meanwhile, German authorities struggle to tackle right-wing extremists—60 of whom threaten public safety and 12,700 oriented toward violence. By belonging to gun clubs, they have legal access to firearms. Most of them do not have a criminal record. Law is lenient. Neo Nazi Franco A. of the German military was arrested for stockpiling weapons and preparing “violent subversion.” But a court released him because there was “insufficient evidence that he had taken a firm decision to attack”.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The authorities have banned the neo Nazi organisation Combat 18 and approved a tougher anti-hate speech bill that increases punishment to three years for online rape and death threats. They seek to compel Facebook to report hate speech on their platform. A basic problem is that experts are unsure whether these xenophobes are terrorists or mentally ill. Seizing upon this dilemma, the AfD claims such killers are psychologically disturbed and not motivated by right-wing ideology. But surveys show that most Germans hold AfD partly responsible for rightwing extremism, which they see as a bigger threat than Muslim fundamentalism.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/02/28/cold-blooded-or-just-nuts.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/02/28/cold-blooded-or-just-nuts.html Fri Feb 28 14:37:44 IST 2020 hitler-in-waiting <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/02/14/hitler-in-waiting.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2020/2/14/54-Hitler-in-waiting-new.jpg" /> <p>It was a “political earthquake”, no less. The incident in the east German state of Thuringia created shockwaves. People, politicians and pundits denounced it as “unforgivable”, “inexcusable” and a “lust for power that trumps moral responsibility”.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>So what happened? Thomas Kemmerich was elected premier of Thuringia with the support of the far right Alternative for Deutschland (AfD)—a first in post-war Germany. Inclusion of far right parties in coalition governments is increasingly common in Europe, but because of Germany’s Nazi past, mainstream political parties shun the far right. Said leftist parliamentarian Martin Schirdewan, “This breach of taboo shows how weak resistance to the rise of the right in Germany is.” Kemmerich belongs to the pro-business Free Democratic Party, an ally of Chancellor Angela Merkel’s Christian Democratic Union (CDU). Censured Merkel: “This broke with a core conviction, that no majorities should be won with the help of AfD.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The AfD’s kingmaker role in Thuringia sent shivers down Germany’s spine because it was an eerie repetition of history. Exactly 90 years ago, Adolf Hitler triumphantly proclaimed: “We achieved the greatest success in Thuringia. Today we really are the crucial party there. The parties in Thuringia cannot get a majority without our assistance.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>It is the same situation now. Kemmerich rationalised: “There is no choice but to get AfD help to govern.” Thuringia, in former East Germany, is a far right stronghold. In the recent election, the left party won 31 per cent of the votes and the AfD 23 per cent. Kemmerich’s party won only 5 per cent, so its ally CDU’s 21 per cent vote was insufficient for premiership. Thus, the pariah AfD became the kingmaker. In 1930, the Nazi debut in the Thuringia government was its first major breakthrough in the Weimar Republic, culminating with Hitler’s ascension as chancellor in 1933.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The AfD leader in Thuringia, Björn Höcke, apparently aims to follow Hitler’s rise. Last September, a court ruled that the anti-semitic and racist Höcke could be legally termed a “fascist” as the description “rests on verifiable fact”. German media accuses Höcke of using Kemmerich as his “tool”.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Post-war Germany vows never to forget the past, including the Nazi persecution of Jews. Höcke trashes this resolve, claiming that Germany is “crippled” by its “stupid” politics of atonement and describes the Berlin Holocaust memorial as a “monument of shame in the heart of the capital”. He leads an extremist faction in the AfD, ominously called “The Wing”.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Many neo-Nazis seek refuge in the AfD, which began as a Eurosceptic party and floundered until 2015 when Merkel’s welcome of over a million, mostly Muslim, migrants provoked a fierce public backlash. The AfD transformed into an anti-immigration, anti-Islam, anti-mainstream media, xenophobic party. It scored spectacular successes. For the first time, the AfD entered the German parliament, becoming the main opposition party with 89 members. It won seats in all 16 state parliaments and in the European Parliament. The party’s moderate faction is led by Alice Weidel, 38, a lesbian economist who lives in Switzerland with a Sri Lankan partner and its extremist faction is led by lawyer Alexander Gauland, 76. Like Höcke, Siegbert Droese, head of the AfD in Leipzig, is a Hitler fan. One of the cars in his convoy had the licence plate AH1818, a neo-Nazi code for Hitler.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The AfD-backed Kemmerich faced a firing squad of abuse: “hypocrite”, “traitor” “charlatan”. He resigned and Merkel’s party leader and potential successor Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer stepped down for failing to control her regional partymen. Having caused a seismic episode, kingmaker Höcke retreated. In 24 hours, public outrage clipped the wings of the wannabe Hitler. But he lies in wait.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/02/14/hitler-in-waiting.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/02/14/hitler-in-waiting.html Fri Feb 14 11:21:07 IST 2020 putin-game-for-greatness <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/01/31/putin-game-for-greatness.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2020/1/31/61-Putin-game-for-greatness-new.jpg" /> <p>Western pundits invariably reduce Russian President Vladimir Putin into a caricature. He is the brooding, power-obsessed, money-crazed, luxury-loving, paranoid megalomaniac. Putin’s recent constitutional changes reaffirm his domestic puppeteering prowess. In foreign affairs, he is the sinister strategist, the inscrutable grandmaster of global geopolitics, conniving, subverting, and plotting the downfall of the west.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Even American officials foster this image. Mike Rogers, the House Intelligence Committee chairman during Barack Obama presidency, famously said, “Putin is playing chess and we are playing marbles.” Westerners like to paint Putin as a Machiavellian manipulator who masterminds all the crises they face—Brexit, migrants, fake news, Donald Trump’s election and social polarisation.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>In a just-released book, Russia expert Mark Galeotti argues “the west gets him all wrong”. Putin, he says, is not a chess player. He is a judo expert, a nimble ninja who seizes the opportune moment to use his opponents’ strength against them.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Chess or judo, these are tactics. Putin’s success is his strategy, his vision of a strong, resurgent and respected Russia, risen from the Soviet Union’s ashes. His own name germinates this vision. “What’s in a name?” asked Shakespeare dismissively. For Putin, name is destiny. He sees himself as successor, not so much to Vladimir Lenin, but to Vladimir the Great, the expansionist prince-turned-saint who created the Russian proto-state 1,000 years ago.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Sword and stratagem, marriage and might, prince Vladimir used them all to conquer and annex neighbouring territories. A pagan, he shopped for the right organised religion for his people. To him, the loss of Jerusalem proved God had abandoned the Jews. Roman Catholicism permitted wine but prohibited polygamy. Islam, vice versa. He reportedly proclaimed—“No alcohol? Drinking is the joy of all Rus! We cannot exist without that pleasure.” In Constantinople, he found his answer. The Byzantine Church exuded the pomp and pageantry, rituals and riches that created “heaven on earth”. Thus the Russian Orthodox Church was born and prince Vladimir was anointed saint.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Veteran Russia-watcher Odd Gunnar Skagestad says Putin carefully and consistently crafts a persona that is in complete alignment with Vladimir the Great, both in terms of political power and in religious legitimacy. Putin believes the Russian Orthodox Church reflects Russia’s soul. Notwithstanding the communist purges of Christianity, church and clergymen, most Russians, especially women, are devout. Putin harnesses Russian pride and nationalism, faith and grandeur by invoking religious symbols and dignitaries.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Putin cannily cultivates his image. Strengthening the ex-KGB, Russian James Bond aura are pictures of the macho shirtless Putin, on horseback or hunting. Another video shows him emerging from freezing waters. More than fitness and endurance, it symbolises baptism. Exactly as in a painting by Viktor Vasnetsov depicting the baptism of Vladimir the Great, Putin rises from the wintry waters, golden cross gleaming on his torso.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Resurrection. James Bond’s favourite hobby. By deftly reincarnating himself as prime minister, Putin overcame constitutionally-mandated presidential two-term limitation and controlled Russia for two decades. Now, with his new constitutional amendments, Putin plots his post-2024 resurrection to perpetuate direct or indirect control for another decade. Putin often asks independent experts how history will view him. With the Russian economy sinking and social discontent rising, it is doubtful that he will be remembered as Putin the Great a thousand years from now.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/01/31/putin-game-for-greatness.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/01/31/putin-game-for-greatness.html Fri Jan 31 11:05:16 IST 2020 a-royal-drama-worth-the-big-screen <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/01/17/a-royal-drama-worth-the-big-screen.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2020/1/17/30-Prince-Harry-and-Meghan-Markle-new.jpg" /> <p>This could be a 21st century Disney version of the British royal romance. The commoner rescues the prince from his castle. Traumatised by childhood memories, the prince is vulnerable. His street-smart commoner wife is no virginal violet. She is from American showbiz, older, divorced, has a black mother, is opinionated and independent, with millions in the bank. Tormented by goblins and monsters, palace intrigues and stifling rules, the couple run away from their kingdom, seeking more fame and fortune in distant Canada.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Driving them mad and away is the modern wicked stepmother—the British tabloid press. Prince Harry and his wife Meghan have declared war against the “false, derogatory and malicious”British tabloids, which they accuse are “destroying”their lives. Tabloids skewer all royals, but Meghan was roasted relentlessly as a “fame-hungry social climber”. Many say the vitriol is racist.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>But Meghan, often described as “difficult”, also became tabloid prey owing to her dysfunctional family, private jet trips and £2.4 million taxpayer-funded home improvement. Anti-Meghan journalist Piers Morgan tweeted: “People say I am too critical of Meghan Markle. But she ditched her family, ditched her dad, ditched most of her old friends, split Harry from William &amp; has now split him from the royal family. I rest my case.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Harry and Meghan fought back valiantly—he rebuked, she sued the tabloids. But the evil tabloid stepmother continued to lie, distort and mock. Harry remembers that the tabloid demonisation of Princess Diana turned to lionisation only with her death in a paparazzi chase. Said Harry, who has openly discussed his mental health issues, “I lost my mother and now I watch my wife falling victim to the same powerful forces. I cannot be a silent witness to her private suffering. I will not be bullied into playing a game that killed my mum.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>To save their fairy tale wedding from turning into a nightmare marriage, the couple will “step back”from royal duties, live part-time in North America and implement a new media policy. Traditionally, the tabloids enjoy privileged access to the royals. But off with their heads, say Harry and Meghan, banishing the “misreporting”tabloids from their Camelot circle. Instead, they will include grassroots journalists, “credible”media and social media. The couple can run, but can they hide from the tabloids’ long claws and fangs?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Spurning an outdated media system is one thing, but no royal couple has attempted a part-time, half-in, half-out relationship. Harry and Meghan wish to remain within the royal family, but seek financial independence. This involves lucrative commercial deals, including personal branding and monetising celebrity, which Meghan excels in. But disentangling philanthropic royal identity from profitable private business is treacherously tricky. Which is why Queen Elizabeth’s reaction to the couple’s decision was identical to Meryl Streep’s celluloid comment on human entanglements: “It’s complicated”.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Did the Queen anticipate this separation? In her Christmas message, there were no photographs of Harry’s family on her desk. Royal courtiers say she was merely signalling the line of succession, from her to her son Prince Charles, grandson William and great-grandson George. Sixth in line, Harry’s succession prospects are dim. Now it is airbrushed out. Perhaps Harry and Meghan fled the castle on their terms, pre-empting exile on the royal institution’s conditions. The couple’s parting jab is that they shall carve a “progressive role”for themselves. That role may be easier in reel than real life. Given his lineage and her acting background, Harry and Meghan are ideally suited to play themselves in a sassy new Disney romance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/01/17/a-royal-drama-worth-the-big-screen.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2020/01/17/a-royal-drama-worth-the-big-screen.html Sat Jan 18 17:23:25 IST 2020 brexit-horror-show-continues <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/11/09/brexit-horror-show-continues.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2019/11/9/35-brexit-horror-new.jpg" /> <p>Halloween came and went. So did Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s threat to leave the European Union on October 31, leaving the monster of Brexit uncertainty to continue haunting Britain. The next chapter is elections, the third in three years, the first to be held in December in a century. The month is avoided because voters are busy with festivities or ill with flu. The cold, dark, wet and windy weather excludes outdoor campaigns, while indoor spaces are booked with events. Worse, the December 12 poll outcome may fail to clarify the murky mess called Brexit. Political commentator Nick Cohen predicts Britain’s “economy, constitution, place in the international order and sense of who it is and what it can become will be battlefields in the next election”.</p> <p>Opinion polls give Tory leader Johnson a strong lead over Labour’s Jeremy Corbyn, regarded as the most unpopular opposition leader in 45 years. If Johnson gets a clear majority, then Britain will leave the EU by January 31. But before Tories uncork the champagne, they should remember that opinion polls predicted an even bigger lead for Johnson’s predecessor Theresa May when she called elections in 2017. She lost her majority, returning with a weak government that failed to deliver Brexit.</p> <p>Britain’s politics has traditionally been binary—Tories vs Labour. But now, there are two strong spoilers in the fray, the Brexit Party that wants a clear-cut Brexit and the Liberal Democrats that aim to cancel Brexit. Labour and Tory supporters are further splintered into pro- and anti-Brexit camps. Tories could wrest some Labour seats, but lose their traditional strongholds like London, university towns and southeast England that wish to remain in the EU. Johnson is popular, but critics see him as divisive and untrustworthy because of his flip-flops.</p> <p>“Get Brexit Done” is Johnson’s election mantra. Counting on voters’ Brexhaustion, Labour hopes to win by focusing on the austerity era under Tories’ 10-year rule that devastated ordinary people. It promises to tax the rich and improve health care, schools, housing, environment, infrastructure and recruit more policemen to end knife crime.</p> <p>Experts worry that even democracy is now “unsafe” in Britain. Of the 650 MPs, 50 are not contesting primarily due to online and physical threats. Most are women. Voter manipulation is another worrying issue. Full Fact, a pro-democracy charity, warns “any election held today would be open to abuse”. Referring to people’s indifference to the lies shrouding Brexit, Oxford University professor Patrick McGuinness says, “That is why I am really pessimistic, as well as sad and angry.”</p> <p>Activists say the Tory government has failed to control bots, social media corporations, Russian meddling, computer-generated fake propaganda and micro targeting of voters with devious political advertising. Seeing the misuse, Peter Pomerantsev, an expert on information warfare, says satirically, “Britain is turning into a failing African state, but without the sunshine.”</p> <p>Should elections produce a hung parliament resulting in a coalition government, more uncertainty will prevail. Potential future scenarios include: January Brexit, soft spring Brexit, Brexit cancellation or a new referendum in mid-2020. To dodge being blamed for a no-deal Brexit, an exasperated EU will grant Brextensions. Giving a futuristic spin, writer Julian Popov mocked: “The year is 2192. The British prime minister visits Brussels to ask for an extension of the Brexit deadline. No one remembers where this tradition originated, but every year it attracts many tourists from all over the world.” It is equally bad if Brexit happens. A new book, examining the 15-20 years of tortured trade negotiations that then lie ahead, is titled Brexiternity.</p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/11/09/brexit-horror-show-continues.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/11/09/brexit-horror-show-continues.html Sat Nov 09 12:28:10 IST 2019 deal-dilemma-delay <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/10/12/deal-dilemma-delay.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2019/10/12/66-Deal-dilemma-delay-new.jpg" /> <p>My deal or no deal. Sounds familiar? Yes, we are back in Britain. The Shakespearean dilemma to leave or not to leave the European Union raises new proposals and threats that fizzle before they fly. When Prime Minister Boris Johnson unveiled his alternative proposal to continue the open border between Britain’s Northern Ireland and the EU member country of Ireland post Brexit, he challenged the EU: Take it or we leave without a deal. The ultimatum failed. The European Parliament’s Brexit coordinator Guy Verhofstadt said, “This is repackaging old bad ideas.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Everyone agrees that border checks on the Irish frontier must be avoided lest it reignite the Protestant-Catholic sectarian violence. Johnson’s “flexible and creative” proposal conceptualises two borders, one on land, the other at sea. Electronic monitoring would make the Irish border checks invisible. Critics say it is not the checks, but the technology that is invisible—because it is not yet developed. Johnson’s proposal controversially mandates Northern Ireland’s legislature to periodically review and veto this agreement. The EU worships predictability. This clause convinced it that Johnson is playing to his domestic gallery, instead of crafting a stable, operational deal with the EU.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>But Johnson’s proposal has more support than former prime minister Theresa May’s doomed deal, rejected thrice by parliament. It is liked by Northern Ireland’s Unionist Party and large sections within Johnson’s Conservative Party. At the annual Tory conference, his popularity was in full display. No one seemed to care about his alleged sex and sugar daddy scandals. Because of this Brexit crisis, “we are like a world class athlete with a pebble in our shoe,” Johnson said, entertaining party members with his jokes, punchlines and vivid metaphors. “Get Brexit done,” he asserted, to roaring approval. The fun and festive atmosphere, with much champagne and gin tonic flowing, was in contrast with the anger and infighting in the Labour Party’s conference.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>A significant transformation is the consecration of the Conservative Party as a Brexit party. Much like how the Tea Party movement changed the Republican Party in the United States, the Leave.EU campaign infiltrated the Conservative Party to catalyse this change. This group has used the discredited data mining Cambridge Analytica’s techniques to target pro-Brexit individuals and create the biggest, most powerful online political engagement compared with any other party.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Leave.EU’s network fosters a culture of intimidation to ambush and silence prominent Tory ‘Remainers’—those who wish to remain in the EU. Conservative MP Philip Lee, one of those hounded out, has revealed the “destructive campaign” against him. Johnson’s trusted aide, Dominic Cummings, the architect of the Vote Leave campaign credited for winning the Brexit Referendum, is another prominent Brexiteer shaping the current government’s policies. The third leg of the Conservative Party’s hard right Brexiteerism is the European Research Group, whose celebrity member is Jacob Rees-Mogg, the lanky, languid aristocrat, who, like the other Brexiteers, blames the elites for betraying Britain’s glory.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>But the glory’s gone and Britain is tired. Brexit is still undone and the current parliament exhausted. Fresh elections could lead to a Johnson victory. But unless he has a clear majority, the Brexit saga of confusion and uncertainty will drag on. But what happens on October 31, Britain’s deadline for a Halloween Brexit? The Brexit talks continue, but concluding a legally watertight deal requires more flexibility and time. The parliament has outlawed no-deal Brexit. But Johnson insists Britain will leave, come what may. Experts say another delay seems likely. Sounds familiar.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/10/12/deal-dilemma-delay.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/10/12/deal-dilemma-delay.html Sat Oct 12 11:10:36 IST 2019 young-and-determined <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/09/26/young-and-determined.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2019/9/26/64-Young-and-determined-new.jpg" /> <p>She is being compared with history’s enduring icons, from Mother Teresa to Martin Luther King. The transformation of 16-year-old Greta Thunberg from a lone Swedish schoolgirl to the world’s biggest climate leader is remarkable. Inspired by her, schoolchildren and adults have spilled into the streets in 185 countries, demanding their politicians save the planet. Greta proclaimed: “I have a dream that the powerful take the climate crisis seriously. The time for their fairy tales is over.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Greta’s activism began with skipping class and holding a placard stating: “school strike for climate”. Within a year, schoolchildren around the world left their classrooms to hold protest posters, screaming together outside parliaments to force politicians to “listen” to climate science. Greta is now a global celebrity, featuring in Time’s 100 influential people, met the Pope who told her “keep doing what you are doing” and has addressed parliaments, congresses and the World Economic Forum where she told global leaders: “I want you to panic. I want you to feel the fear I feel every day.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>It is her inner demons that make Greta’s meteoric rise especially remarkable. When she was 11 years old, she stopped talking and eating for two months. After battling depression, eating disorders and anxiety attacks, she was eventually diagnosed with Asperger’s syndrome, which falls in the autism spectrum. She has difficulties with social interaction, displays repetitive patterns of behaviour and obsessive compulsive behaviour.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>In her Swedish book, Scenes from the Heart, Greta’s mother Malena Ernman presents her family’s crisis as a metaphor for a planet in crisis. When she finally starts eating again, Greta chews only pancakes filled with rice. Her lunch box must be kept in the school refrigerator, but it cannot have a sticker with her name on it. Stickers and newspapers trigger Greta’s OCD against eating.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>A well known opera singer in Europe, Malena struggles with both her daughters. Greta’s younger sister Beata suffers from Asperger’s, OCD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Malena’s heart-wrenching anecdotes include Beata’s sudden outbursts of anger, during which she screams obscenities at her mother. What is normally a 10-minute walk to dance class takes an hour because Beata insists on walking only with her left foot forward and demands that her mother walk the same way. She insists Malena wait outside during class, forbidding her to move or even go to the bathroom. Malena obeys, but the child invariably collapses weeping in her mother’s arms.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>People with Asperger’s “view the word in stark terms”, says Tony Attwood, British psychologist and leading expert on Asperger’s syndrome. “They are known for speaking their mind, being honest, determined and have a strong sense of social justice.” Greta’s achievement is also a tragic reminder of the unfulfilled potential of millions of autistic children.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>But Greta is trolled. Climate sceptics tell her to attend school instead of lecturing adults. Parents worry about the consequences of Greta’s fears that touch a chord in youngsters everywhere. A child protestor in New York said, “Our teachers say we must study for a good future. But if we do not protect the planet, we will not have a future.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Some are uncomfortable about a teenager at the helm, wondering who is pulling the strings. For instance, a US-based foundation manages Nobel laureate Malala Yousafzai. Greta, the freckled, awkward girl with her two plaits, simple dress and plain speak is an international sensation—because she is authentic. But now she also uses adult jargon like “scaleable action” and “social tipping points”. Still, her fans expect her to fulfil an icon’s destiny and win this year’s Nobel peace prize.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/09/26/young-and-determined.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/09/26/young-and-determined.html Thu Sep 26 16:43:56 IST 2019 greed-for-greenland <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/08/30/greed-for-greenland.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2019/8/30/62-Greed-for-Greenland-new.jpg" /> <p>Terrific location. Spectacular views. Pristine air. Wealthy area. What’s not to like?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>So, the real estate tycoon-turned-United States President, Donald Trump, offers to buy remote Greenland, the world’s biggest and most sparsely populated island. That Greenland is not for sale and is an autonomous region of a close American ally, Denmark, is a minor detail, not a deterrent, on Trump’s radar. He declared: “Essentially, it is a large real estate deal.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Danish Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen’s dismissal of Trump’s offer as “absurd” so infuriated him that he shockingly cancelled his early September state visit to Denmark. German political scientist Josef Braml analysed Trump’s behaviour: “He sees himself as a boss, articulates clear goals and demands and rewards or punishes subordinates with advantages or disadvantages if they fail to meet his requirements.” Soren Espersen of the Danish People’s Party said bluntly: “Here stands final proof that Trump has gone mad.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Trump’s behaviour is often erratic, unpredictable, insulting and unreasonable, but grabbing Greenland is neither absurd nor unprecedented. Records show that American attempts to acquire Greenland go back 150 years. Resource-rich buffer zones are honeypots. In 1867, the US bought Alaska from Russia for $7 million. A year later, American officials coveted Greenland—a quarter of America and half of Europe in size, with a longer coastline. They believed summer navigation through the shorter northern polar route would connect east and west, shrinking shipping time between the US and Japan-China. Besides, fish and minerals were “inexhaustible”. Though the Congress vetoed the purchase of Greenland then, American commerce exhausted Greenland’s aluminium ore deposits by 1987.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>When Nazi Germany occupied Denmark in 1940, the US established a military base in Greenland. After World War II ended, the US offered in vain $100 million in gold bars to buy Greenland. During the Cold War, the United States launched a secret project to build nuclear missile launch sites under Greenland’s icecap to strike targets in the Soviet Union. The camp was abandoned in 1966 due to the ice sheet moving. A complete icecap melt—perhaps within a century—would release tons of buried radioactive waste into the ocean.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Strategic and commercial reasons to gobble Greenland are even more compelling today. It is a bulwark against Russian military ambitions. China is now prowling for minerals and strategic footholds in the Arctic. Greenland is a goldmine for rare-earth metals required to manufacture mobile phones, computers and electric cars. Buckling under American pressure, Denmark finally blocked Chinese projects in Greenland.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Under the Arctic lies 13 per cent of the world’s potential remaining oil and 30 per cent of gas reserves. The Arctic is the new “Great Game” hunting grounds for the “Big Five” North Pole powers—the US, Canada, Russia, Norway and Denmark—thanks to Greenland. Compared with 67 million people who live in Britain, Greenland, which is nine times bigger, is home to 56,500 Inuits—fiercely independent, but few.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Trump, the Artful Dealer, targets the opponent’s weak flank, claiming his offer is a favour to Denmark, because they can save their annual $650 million subsidy to Greenland. Says Morten Ostergaard, Danish Social Liberal Party leader: “The man is unpredictable. It shows why we, now more than ever, should consider European Union countries as our closest allies.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>But this is not the end of the Greenland saga, especially if Trump continues in office after the 2020 elections. After all, Greenland is almost as close to Washington as to Copenhagen. In real estate as in geopolitics, it is location, location, location.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/08/30/greed-for-greenland.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/08/30/greed-for-greenland.html Fri Aug 30 11:32:21 IST 2019 right-churn-ahead <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/08/17/right-churn-ahead.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2019/8/17/30-Right-churn-ahead-new.jpg" /> <p>They live in a time warp, in an era of German supremacy, with Heil Hitler salutes and gun-slinging swagger. They print their own driver’s licence, ID and passport. They paint borders around their property to demarcate their sovereign territory titled the “Second German Empire,” the “Free State of Prussia” or the “Principality of Germania”. They bear arms to “carry on the fight” against modern “illegitimate” Germany, still “occupied by the Allied Forces”. They call themselves the Reichsbürger—citizens of “the Reich (the greater German empire)”. The German domestic intelligence agency, BfV, estimates there are 16,500 of them.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Most Germans see the Reichsbürger as a motley bunch of zealots and crackpots. They comprise neo-Nazis, white supremacists, bigots, xenophobes, ultra-religionists, anti-semites and cranky oddballs who swamp local state apparatus with lawsuits or instigate gun battles with police. Mostly hailing from the former East Germany, they are the least integrated into the German economy. A district court judge in the Saxony-Anhalt state described them as “conspiracy theorists” and “malcontents”. Apart from the Reichsbürger, there are another 8,000 right-wing radicals with differing motives and ideologies. The demographic profile of this far-right fringe is similar to President Donald Trump’s base: white, socially-disadvantaged, middle-aged men.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The growing radicalisation of the far-right is alarming. The influx of refugees in 2015 unleashed a torrent of xenophobia. There were several instances of migrant harassment, but Germany was shaken in June when a neo-Nazi murdered Walter Lübcke, a conservative politician who faced death threats from right-wingers for supporting Chancellor Angela Merkel’s liberal refugee policy. The killer has a long history of violent crimes against immigrants.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The involvement of soldiers and policemen in far-right violence is also disturbing. A neo-Nazi terrorist cell was discovered in the military, plotting to assassinate senior government leaders and lay the blame on asylum seekers. A soldier who was arrested had posed as a Syrian refugee and had, in fact, been given asylum. A former soldier and neo-Nazi, Christian Weissgerber, told German broadcaster ARD, “For me the Bundeswehr (military) is so riddled with nationalist-conservative, racist people that it seems a little ridiculous that everyone is suddenly pretending this is something new.” Defence analyst Sebastian Schulte disagreed. “There has always been the issue of far-right people being drawn to the Bundeswehr, that is a problem that needs to be rooted out, no question,” he said. “But I fail to see a systematic, deeply-rooted, anti-democratic, right-wing network within the Bundeswehr.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Attracted to weapons like moth to flame, far-right radicals find ways to acquire them illegally or legally. In the former Nazi stronghold of Thuringia, the state intelligence agency discovered that neo-Nazis are legally accessing firearms at shooting clubs. The “weaponisation” of right-wing extremists is a dangerous phenomenon on both sides of the Atlantic, as the recent mass shootings in the United States reveal.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Recently in Italy, police raids on far-right groups led to unprecedented seizures, including an air-to-air missile used by the Qatari army, latest machine guns, bayonets, firearms, rocket launchers, ammunition and neo-Nazi propaganda. The arrested include a former candidate of the neo-fascist Forza Nuova party. The arms were smuggled from Austria, Germany and the US. Police suspect the arrested men were involved in arms smuggling. “The far-right in this country traffics weapons of war, and even missiles. It’s an incredible, very serious event,” said Maurizio Martina, former head of the opposition centre-left Democratic Party. Many mainstream European politicians describe gun-toting neo-Nazis as ticking time bombs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/08/17/right-churn-ahead.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/08/17/right-churn-ahead.html Sat Aug 17 12:15:09 IST 2019 boris-brexit-battle <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/08/02/boris-brexit-battle.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2019/8/2/85-Boris-Brexit-battle-new.jpg" /> <p>Do or die is the battle cry of Britain’s new prime minister Boris Johnson. He refers to Brexit, the nation’s biggest crisis since World War II. “We will come out on October the 31st. No ifs, no buts,” he asserts, declaring his war of independence from the European Union.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Brexit has devoured two Tory prime ministers, David Cameron and Theresa May. Will Brexit claim its third victim in a row? Or, will Johnson devour Brexit by delivering it? Or, could there be a third election in three years? It is Britain. No one knows.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Johnson emblazons his resolve to leave the EU by cramming his cabinet with pro-Brexiteers. He pledges that if he cannot squeeze a better deal from the EU, Britain will crash out without a deal, harming both Britain and the EU. He has created a war ministry to supervise all engines of his government to function, not as an “anchor”, but as a “motor” to deliver Brexit by Halloween. Preparations are to be monitored daily. Experts are unsure if Johnson is dead serious or intends to spook the EU into giving concessions. Unimpressed by Johnson’s “combative” negotiating ploys, the EU is preparing for a painful no-deal Brexit. Says philosopher A.C. Grayling, “Prime Minister Boris Johnson is already in conflict with the EU, his own party back-benchers, the opposition Labour Party. He is in conflict with reality.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Despite Johnson’s upbeat spin, celebrity and charisma, the ground realities that throttled Theresa May remain. Britain is fractured between pro- and anti-Brexiteers; a no-deal Brexit is costly and chaotic; parliament opposes no-deal Brexit; the ruling, faction-ridden Conservative Party has a wafer-thin majority; and the EU will not renegotiate.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The EU leaders welcome Johnson, as they must the new prime minister of Britain. But he is seen as more gags than gravitas. Johnson described French President Emmanuel Macron as a “jumped-up Napoleon” and said of Irish Prime Minister Leo Varadkar, “Why can’t he be called Murphy like the rest of them?” Comic, but not diplomatic. Johnson says, “Telling jokes is a very effective way of getting a diplomatic message across.” He insists the public “want to hear what we genuinely think”. Many Europeans genuinely think he is a reckless buffoon. When May appointed Johnson as foreign minister, the German Social Democrat Rolf Mützenich retorted, “What next? Dracula as health minister?” Experts wonder how Johnson will govern because he is a bundle of contradictions. As London mayor, Johnson was popular but chaotic, amateurish and idiosyncratic. In a BBC documentary, Johnson, as foreign minister, comes across as unserious, clowning and chattering trivialities. Is it charming or careless when a man tumbles in rivers, forgets his lines, loses his wedding ring at the reception, wears different coloured socks to an official meeting? Johnson is also very clever, and his friends say “a vessel of focused ambition”. His wit, absurd caricatures, self-mockery and carefully cultivated clumsy image is calculated to disarm the opposition. Biographer Harry Mount says Johnson believes it is his “manifest destiny to become prime minister”.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>As PM, Johnson strives to please the English countryside and the regions— Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland—with extra funding. But many who support Brexit oppose his come-what-may, no-deal Brexit. Johnson’s “do or die” is a war cry against the EU, but this celebrated phrase in a poem by Robert Burns actually honours the Scottish war of independence from Britain. The irony is that if a no-deal Brexit happens, history can repeat. The Scots, who prefer to remain in the EU, could wage a “do or die” against Britain.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/08/02/boris-brexit-battle.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/08/02/boris-brexit-battle.html Sat Aug 03 15:10:10 IST 2019 jair-messias-bolsonaro-more-mess-than-messiah <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/07/20/jair-messias-bolsonaro-more-mess-than-messiah.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2019/7/20/58-Trump-of-the-tropics-new.jpg" /> <p>His middle name is ‘Messias’. But within six months of his rule, citizens wonder if he is more mess than messiah.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Jair Messias Bolsonaro, Brazil’s far-right populist president, promised “Nova Politica”. But citizens see the same old politics of corruption, incompetence and nepotism. He appoints his youngest, 35-year-old, “far-right hunk” son as Brazil’s next ambassador to the United States. “It would be obvious how idiotic this is if we did not have our own nepotism problem. Nepotism is corrupt and dumb,” tweeted Walter Shaub, who resigned as director of the US government’s ethics office in 2017 after clashes with the Trump administration.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Bolsonaro is called the ‘Trump of the Tropics’ for his aggressive use of social media, outrageous remarks, anti-establishment vitriol, expectation of personal loyalty and promotion of family. Public power is private business. Elect one, get four for free. The eldest Bolsonaro son is involved in financial scandals and death squads; the middle one is called “pitbull” for ferociously furthering his father’s causes. All three sons have amassed fortunes on modest lawmakers’ salaries.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Failure to tackle corruption, induction of scandal-tainted characters into his cabinet, political infighting and crude state meddling erode Bolsonaro’s popularity. To deliver on promises, he needs allies. But Bolsonaro faces a firing squad of lawmakers whom he had demonised during the election campaign. They now pay back his insults and profanities by blocking him.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Bolsonaro liberalised gun ownership to deter violence. Experts use global statistics to show homicide in Brazil will now only increase from the current high of 64,000 murders a year. Bolsonaro supports industrial farming in the Amazon. Satellite data show that already deforestation in the world’s biggest rainforest is as much as one football field a minute.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Both Trump and Bolsonaro pander to their base, which in Brazil is called “BBB”—Bulls (agrobusiness), Bullets (gun lobby) and Bible (religious fundamentalists). Both deny climate change and despise socialists, migrants and mainstream media. His critics say Bolsonaro learned what he needed to know from comic books. Rest from Trump. The champion of family values is on his third marriage. He used their pitbull son to wreak vengeance on his first wife.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>In other countries, Bolsonaro’s racist, misogynist and homophobic abuses would earn expulsion. Pushing and snarling, he told a congresswoman from the erstwhile ruling Workers’ Party: “I would never rape you because you are not worth it.” He claims it is a “weakness” to beget daughters and that “a dead son is better than a gay son”.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>During his campaign, he hardly offered solutions for his nation’s problems, but Brazilians were so disgusted with street violence and corruption that they elected him. Says public policy expert Rafael Alcadipani: “Everyone wanted change in society, but the commander-in-chief has not shown himself to be capable of delivering any type of change.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The difference between the North and South American Trumps is that while the economy is booming in the United States, it is shrinking in Brazil. Bolsonaro’s free market views excited business lobbies and his social media prowess enthralled the youth, but economic performance is dismal. Debt and unemployment soars; GDP growth cut from 2 to 0.8 per cent. The nation risks slipping into recession again, making economists wonder whether Brazil qualifies to be a member of the BRICS. Expecting growth on steroids, his adoring fans had hailed the “Bullsonaro wave”. Disenchanted people see a lot of bull, little else. Bolsonaro’s ratings sunk to 32 per cent, the steepest fall for a newly-elected president. The revolution is over. The saviour needs saving.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/07/20/jair-messias-bolsonaro-more-mess-than-messiah.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/07/20/jair-messias-bolsonaro-more-mess-than-messiah.html Sat Jul 20 12:48:12 IST 2019 donald-trump-and-boris-johnson-the-blonde-bombshells <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/06/21/donald-trump-and-boris-johnson-the-blonde-bombshells.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2019/6/21/104-Blond-leading-the-blond-new.jpg" /> <p>The similarities between the two “blond bombshells” are uncanny. In appearance and temperament, US President Donald Trump and Britain’s prime minister aspirant Boris Johnson could be... related. In Manhattan, the public mistook Johnson for Trump on three occasions. The Independent columnist Matthew Norman satirises, “There is the same penchant for comically deranged hair, along with the outlandish narcissism, vulgar populist grandstanding, bone idle refusal to read a brief and limitless capacity for blurting out the crazily offensive.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Johnson’s tactics are Trumpian, too. Leading the Tory pack to replace the outgoing prime minister, Theresa May, Johnson threatens to withhold the €44 billion Brexit divorce bill that Britain must pay the European Union for leaving. Johnson abhors alimony. Like Trump, he has a history of multiple marriages, philandering and adultery. Seeking to use the payment as a bargaining chip to extract a “better deal” from the EU, Johnson proclaimed, “In getting a good deal, money is a great solvent and a great lubricant.” Such populist claims may grease his way to 10 Downing Street, but are unlikely to soften the EU to renegotiate.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Both Trump and Johnson are anti-establishment disrupters, politically incorrect, self-promoting, publicity-loving provocateurs, uninterested in detail and policy. Both use politics as theatre. Both have a history of lying. Johnson was sacked twice—by The Times newspaper for inventing a quote as a journalist and by Tory leader Michael Howard for lying about an adulterous affair.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>But none of this matters as Johnson emerges the clear front runner in the peculiar Tory leadership race. Several candidates fended off scandals involving drug abuse. Johnson admitted to having snorted cocaine (but it did not go up his nostrils, he claims); foreign minister Jeremy Hunt admitted to drinking cannabis lassi in India. Another admitted to using opium, and several others to smoking cannabis. First Minister of Scotland Nicola Sturgeon observed: “What a horror show the Tory leadership election is. Tax cuts for the richest, attacks on abortion rights, hypocrisy on drugs, continued Brexit delusion.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Johnson would like to handle Brexit, Trump style. Said he: “Imagine Trump doing Brexit.... He would go in bloody hard. There would be all sorts of breakdowns, all sorts of chaos. Everyone would think he had gone mad. But actually you might get somewhere... there is method in his madness.” Perhaps. But there is one big difference. Britain is not America.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Biographers say there is method in Johnson’s madness, too. He has spent years carefully crafting his public persona as a bumbling bloke prone to rambling speeches, risqué jokes and racy rhetoric. Noted biographer Sonia Purnell: “He is a great actor, he is a showman. The whole ruffling-the-hair thing was about making sure he did not seem too ambitious. The ‘gaffes’ were not really gaffes, they were scripted.” His biographers say Johnson is “ferociously ambitious and competitive”.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>There are significant differences between Trump and Johnson, notably Johnson’s intellect. Educated in Eton and Oxford, Johnson can sing in German, joke in French and debate with scholars on Greek vs Latin literature. A gifted writer, he has authored a biography of Winston Churchill. Said American political scientist Geoffrey Vaughan, “Trump is ostentatiously rich and Johnson ostentatiously educated.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>But for all his erudition, critics say Johnson lacks focus and preparation. “It scares the living daylights out of me to think of him forming a cabinet, because he is not good at selecting people,” said Purnell. Here, too, Johnson could borrow from Trump’s playbook—the blond leading the blond.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/06/21/donald-trump-and-boris-johnson-the-blonde-bombshells.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/06/21/donald-trump-and-boris-johnson-the-blonde-bombshells.html Sat Jun 22 12:10:45 IST 2019 the-rage-of-conspiracy-theories <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/06/07/the-rage-of-conspiracy-theories.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2019/6/7/166-The-rage-of-conspiracy-theories-new.jpg" /> <p>Populists tend to believe in conspiracy theories. A global survey shows that populists—leaders and supporters—are more inclined to believe that climate change is a hoax, the US staged 9/11, Muslims are invading Europe, Angela Merkel is Adolf Hitler’s secret love child, aliens are in contact with humans and fact-based journalism is fake news. Says Karen Douglas, British social psychologist, “Exposure to conspiracy theories decreases trust in governmental institutions, politicians and scientists.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Even some educated American parents refute medical evidence to refuse vaccination because they believe it causes autism. The result: the recent measles epidemic, two decades after its eradication. The rejection of vaccines is fuelled by anger against and suspicion of profiteering corporates and elites.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Populism characterises the narrative that the corrupt ruling elite is exploiting ordinary people. The survey, conducted by YouGov-Cambridge Globalism Project and shared exclusively with The Guardian, shows that conspiracy theories fester where corruption thrives—high in Brazil, low in Japan, Canada and Scandinavia, with the US and India in the middle.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Conspiracy-spinning populists account for 15 per cent of the population, rising to almost a third during crises. A 2017 European research reveals this pattern from the time Rome burned down 2,000 years ago. Emperor Nero blamed the Christians; citizens suspected that Nero had masterminded the fires so he could rebuild a new city. In the US, conspiracy theories spiked in the 1890s when people feared Big Business, and in the 1950s when they were afraid of the new enemy: communism.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>With populism now surging across the world, conspiracy theories are spiking again. Conspiracies go viral because Twitter, Facebook, YouTube and WhatsApp are the breeding grounds—germinating, spreading and amplifying the conspiracy virus globally.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Another reason for the surge is that political leaders are embracing conspiracy theories. Men like Donald Trump, Vladimir Putin, Brazil’s Jair Bolsonaro and Turkey’s Recep Tayyip Erdogan have fuelled such theories to achieve their political agendas. Says Joseph Uscinski, political scientist, University of Miami, “What is unique about this time is that you have President Trump who is a conspiracy theorist.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Everyone is susceptible to conspiracy theories. Dutch social psychologist Jan-Willem van Prooijen says the instinct for survival wired all humans to be paranoid. You could be killed if you were not suspicious of movement or strangers. But, conspiracy theorists are more likely to see patterns in random stimuli or infer relationships between unrelated events, says Prooijen. Looking for patterns is normal, even creative, but detecting patterns that do not exist is not. One YouTuber connected California fires with hurricanes, hepatitis A outbreak and the release of the movie Geostorm. His video drew 1.95 lakh viewers.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>People who suffer from anxiety, uncertainty, alienation or powerlessness are drawn to conspiracies. It is a coping mechanism, say psychologists, to stresses relating to job, identity, inadequacies, relationships or uprooting. For them, says Douglas, “conspiracy belief may offer an important source of belonging and shared reality”.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Conspiracy theories can have positive outcomes, motivating whistleblowers and investigative journalists. As Douglas says, “History has repeatedly shown that corporate and political elites do conspire against public interests. Conspiracy theories play an important role in bringing their deeds into the light.” The downside is that conspiracy theorists often disregard science, facts, experts and democracy. Through history, the diabolic use of conspiracy theories to manipulate public opinion has led to wars, genocide and societal collapse. There is no vaccine to prevent that.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/06/07/the-rage-of-conspiracy-theories.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/06/07/the-rage-of-conspiracy-theories.html Fri Jun 07 11:49:44 IST 2019 the-princess-of-norway-and-her-shaman-lover <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/05/25/the-princess-of-norway-and-her-shaman-lover.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2019/5/25/53-The-princess-and-the-shaman.jpg" /> <p>The daughter of the current King of Norway, Princess Märtha Louise, had to renounce ‘Her Royal Highness’ title a decade ago after she started her ‘Angels’ school to train people “to get in touch with their angels”. Now the 47-year-old divorced mother of three girls risks losing her ‘Princess’ title, too. People gasped at the identity of her new lover, Durek Verrett. He is a shaman, a self-proclaimed third generation “psychic, clairvoyant, risen-from-the-dead spiritual guide and gifted healer”. Durek, 44, is American, black and bisexual. About a former male lover, Durek explained: “It is not about gender, boxes and labels. It is about love. I am an interesting person.” With such details surfacing, people are yet to exhale.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The California-born shaman claims he foresaw 9/11, can locate missing persons and connect people to their dead loved ones. He can “access” a person’s atoms and “rotate” the electrons to “deplete” ageing, exorcise evil spirits, body toxins, negative energies and help heal cancer. “Nonsense. 100 per cent bullshit,” said two prominent physics professors on national television. Norway’s autonomous consumer authority will track Durek’s claims.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Social media is a parallel universe, but mainstream media and the general public studiously shun disparaging comments about Durek’s race and nationality to avoid sounding racist and xenophobic. But they satirise his voodoo witchcraft. Durek claims he was drawn into shamanism by his grandmother and Croatian princess Suzanna von Radic. In an article titled The shaman’s scam, the Icelandic website Vantrú revealed Durek’s grandmother died two years before he was born and she was not a princess, but a fraud. Polls show 92 per cent of Norwegians believe the princess brought home a charlatan. Durek was miffed by the negative barrage. Mocked journalist Gunnar Stavrun: “As a clairvoyant, didn’t he see it coming?”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Durek seems a marketing genius, boasting of celebrity clients like “soul sister” Gwyneth Paltrow. The Hollywood star’s company Goop was fined $145,000 for falsely claiming fertility benefits for its jade “vaginal eggs”. But Princess Märtha Louise is besotted, declaring on Instagram: “He has made me realise that unconditional love actually exists here on this planet.” Apparently Durek was conditioned. He claims his mother predicted when he was a teenager that he would marry a Norwegian princess. Märtha Louise gushed, “I love you from this eternity to the next.” Leading daily Aftenposten wisecracked: “Last time, her eternal love lasted 15 years.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>It is not goofy romance but crass commerce that experts object to. Märtha Louise announced her relationship on the eve of their Scandinavian ‘The Princess and the Shaman’ tour that promised to take attendees “on a magical journey that opens up your unique truth”. Ticket sales from the five events can rake in Rs 12 crore.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Public outrage exploded. Said social commentator Vebjørn Selbekk, “She can fall in love with whomever she pleases. But milking her ‘Princess’ title for commercial purposes is wrong. It drags down the monarchy.” Historians say there is no such precedent in any European royal family. The church withdrew permission to host an event. As pressure mounted, the Royal Palace announced it is in “dialogue” with Märtha Louise about using her Princess title.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>In egalitarian Norway, media scrutiny is intense on questionable behaviour by people in high places. Forget golden carriage, there was not even a chauffeured limousine to fetch Durek from the airport. The princess chauffeured the shaman. The marketing genie cannot fly on a magic carpet with his Viking princess in her Arctic homeland. But America worships movie stars and royalty. This shaman is onto a good thing.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/05/25/the-princess-of-norway-and-her-shaman-lover.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/05/25/the-princess-of-norway-and-her-shaman-lover.html Sat May 25 12:40:17 IST 2019 bannon-falls-flat <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/05/10/bannon-falls-flat.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2019/5/10/57-Bannon-falls-flat-new.jpg" /> <p>Populists of Europe, unite!</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Thus spake Steve Bannon, former strategist of US President Donald Trump who failed to foresee his own ouster from the White House. With much fanfare, he launched his campaign to fan the flames of right-wing populism across Europe and ensure its triumph in the European Union’s approaching parliamentary elections.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Bannon got off to a splendid start. He sought to unite prominent populist-nationalists so they can together destroy the European Union from within. He met with many of them; was even the surprise guest at the party renaming event of the French far-right leader Marine Le Pen.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Bannon’s arsenal includes founding the Brussels-headquartered The Movement that champions national sovereignty by fighting immigration and European integration. For €100,000 a year, Bannon also leased for 19 years a secluded 800-year old Catholic monastery nestling in the Italian mountains. The monastery will become the “gladiator school for cultural warriors”, training the next generation of populist and nationalist politicians.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Heading this school is Benjamin Harnwell, a devout Catholic-convert who believes Bannon is “one of the greatest men” alive, and an inspiring “defender” of the Judeo-Christian foundations of western civilisation. What about Bannon’s three divorces? Nobody is perfect, he ripostes. Harnwell favours fake news, fear-mongering and Islamophobia, claiming 800 million African migrants will swamp Europe and America. Fact: Less than 1.5 million arrived over a seven-year period.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Bannon hatched the perfect plan to propagate populism in Europe—replicate Trump’s stunning election. He could advise, assist and share with the Europeans his bag of tricks that masterminded Trump’s victory—polling, messaging, social media targeting and voter profiling with skimmed data.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>But, Bannon’s plan has failed to take off so far. First, this is Europe, not the United States, where complex issues curdle instantly into black and white. Alexander Gauland, co-leader of far right Alternative for Germany, who rebuffed Bannon said, “We are not in America. The interests of the anti-establishment parties in Europe are quite divergent.” Second, The Movement evokes strong negative reactions in Europe because that is what Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini called their fascist organisations. Third, Bannon’s tricks, like snake oil, is illegal in Europe. Fourth, most top-notch European populists who have taken Bannon’s sovereignty message to heart would rather be national warriors than American lackeys. Some have formed loose alliances among themselves.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Pointing out that Bannon is American, not European, Le Pen said, “It is up to us, and us alone, to structure the political force that will emerge from the election because we are attached to our freedom, our sovereignty.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Even the neighbouring villagers are clamouring to wrest the monastery’s sovereignty. They want Bannon evicted so that the medieval monastery does not become a far-right boot camp.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>So, has “Sloppy Steve”, to use Trump’ words, “lost his mind?” No way. Bannon believes he is about to set Europe ablaze. Without the faintest trace of irony, his ally, Mischaël Modrikamen who administers The Movement, says it will become the “Davos of populists”. Nothing national about the Swiss forum, which European populists loathe as a cabal of their enemy number one— “the globalised elite”.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Public anger against the elites, the establishment, against income inequality and immigration will enable the populists to win an estimated one-third of the seats in the European parliament. A significant achievement, but no thanks to Bannon.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/05/10/bannon-falls-flat.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/05/10/bannon-falls-flat.html Fri May 10 12:21:57 IST 2019 brexit-the-comedy-of-errors <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/04/26/brexit-the-comedy-of-errors.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2019/4/26/54-The-comedy-of-errors-new.jpg" /> <p>Brexit unfolds like a Shakespearean drama. It also mirrors what Karl Marx said about history repeating itself, first as tragedy, then as farce. Brexit is delayed yet again because Britain cannot find the exit from the European Union.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>As before, all exits turn into dead-ends because the British continue to brawl among themselves. Still, it wouldn’t be Shakespearean if there weren’t new twists to the tale. The delay necessitates Britain’s participation in the May elections to the European Parliament, a body they do not want to belong to, an idea Brexiters loathe. Opinion polls show that the faction-ridden, imploding, ruling Tory party will be mauled in the elections.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>If Brexit stalls, some Tories vow to wreck the EU from within. Member of Parliament Mark Francois threatened the bloc, “You will be facing Perfidious Albion on speed.” Another Tory MP Jacob Rees-Mogg specified, “We could veto any increase in the budget, obstruct the putative EU army and block Mr. Macron’s integrationist schemes.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>French President Emmanuel Macron anticipates exactly such perfidious behaviour. He belongs to a proud tradition of French presidents, who prefer to keep “troublesome” Britain at bay. In the 1960s, president Charles de Gaulle blocked ‘Brexin’–Britain joining the European bloc. He believed the “nation of shopkeepers” did not share European continental values of strong states and social inclusion and would be America’s Trojan Horse. Reportedly, he said he would like to see Britain enter the bloc “stripped naked”. His denial was more devastating, “For a beautiful creature, nakedness was natural enough; for those around her, it was satisfying enough. But I have never said that about England.” In her 2002 book Statecraft, former British prime minister Margaret Thatcher—incidentally, the daughter of a shopkeeper—said de Gaulle “did not particularly like Britain, but he understood us quite well”.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>So does Macron. To preempt potential sabotage, he insisted Britain leave by October 31, a day before the new European Commission takes charge. He emphasised, “We cannot weaken our institutions by having a member who is permanently there, but leaving.” He also succeeded in imposing a humiliating June review to check how wrangling Britain was progressing toward the Halloween Brexit.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Preferring to leave earlier to avoid the European elections, May tries desperately to forge a Brexit deal with opposition leader Jeremy Corbyn. But messy Brexit gets messier. May had offered her head on a platter if her rebellious MPs ratified her Brexit deal. They disdained the offer, wanting her head, but not her deal. Now they plot to topple her. Experts predict by year-end, Britain could be led either by the pro-Donald Trump, Tory Brexiter Boris Johnson or the pro-Vladimir Putin “Lefty” Labour leader, Corbyn.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>For now, May remains prime minister, diminished in power, authority and support from her cabinet, parliament and her party. Satirist John Crace mocked that for Halloween, Theresa May would dress up as herself. “The living dead. If that did not terrify the EU into giving us another extension, nothing would,” he said.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>In keeping with the history of repeats, yet another extension is possible, along with a second referendum, fresh elections, a soft, hard, Midsummer Night or Halloween Brexit. Or no Brexit at all. For Brexiters, that would be Love’s Labour’s Lost, for anti-Brexiters it is All’s Well That Ends Well. Britain’s fate is like the hit song Hotel California: “You can check out anytime you like, but you can never leave.” May cautioned, “The longer this takes, the greater the risk of the UK never leaving at all.” In which case, this three-year Brexit brouhaha would have been Much Ado About Nothing.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/04/26/brexit-the-comedy-of-errors.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/04/26/brexit-the-comedy-of-errors.html Sat Apr 27 17:14:29 IST 2019 brexit-in-uk-mayhem-in-theresa-mays-land <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/03/29/brexit-in-uk-mayhem-in-theresa-mays-land.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2019/3/29/60-Mayhem-in-Mays-land-new.jpg" /> <p>My Deal. No Deal. Delay. British Parliament sounds like a casino where all bets have gone wrong. Worse, uncertainty still rages—three years after the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Brexit is delayed by two weeks… but maybe not. No one knows what will happen, even at this eleventh hour. Is Britain leaving the EU or not? Will Britain leave with a deal or no deal? Will Britain exit on April 12, May 22, a year, two years from now, never?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>This confusion, this constant “maybe, maybe not” refrain is British Prime Minister Theresa May’s mayhem. Officials describe her last meeting with the EU leaders as “90 minutes of nothing”. Britain teeters on the edge of a historic gamble, but May has no strategies, no answers. Her Plan B is to repeat Plan A. That is not consistency, that is reckless stubbornness. Accusing May of “unicorn hunting”, Labour MP Stella Creasy proclaims, “The definition of insanity is doing the same thing again and again and expecting different results.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>For a politician, May is awkward, lacking in judgment, people’s skills and emotional intelligence. She antagonises MPs when she needs them most. Her string of mistakes has turned into a noose: holding snap elections to improve Tory majority only to lose it, triggering EU divorce proceedings without a plan, imposing red lines that boxed her in and prioritising party unity over national consensus. Editorialised The Guardian, “The Prime Minister’s inflexibility and tactical ineptitude have just hit a new low, at the very time Britain faces a grave national emergency.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>May lobbed a grenade when she accused parliamentarians of “contemplating their navel”, playing “political games” and triggering a national crisis by rejecting her Brexit deal. Outraged MPs say May’s attack inflames public hatred against parliamentarians. Pro-Brexit hate-mongers call anti-Brexit MPs “traitors” who should be “beheaded”. Defence Minister Tobias Ellwood tweeted a menacing letter he received, vowing to “bring London to its f***ing knees”. Threats of intimidation, abuse and assault are so serious that Parliament’s Deputy Speaker Lindsay Hoyle urged MPs to go home together in groups or take taxis as “tensions and emotions are running at an all-time high”.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>May’s emotions are also running high. She admitted she rebuked MPs out of frustration. Admirers who praised her steadfastness now say Britain “faces the most calamitous failure of government in modern times”. She is as unloved as her Brexit deal. Industry Minister Richard Harrington resigned, accusing May of losing control and “playing roulette with the lives and livelihoods” of Britons. Tweeted Tory MP George Freeman, “I am afraid it is all over for the PM. Across the country you can see the anger.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>While Britain’s political class flounders like a leaky barge battered by the Brexit storm, the EU runs a tight ship. Comprising 27 disparate countries and widely criticised for being big, blundering and bureaucratic, the EU has been remarkably united, nimble and patient, methodically plodding with negotiations despite “brexasperation” at British bickering. With its “flextension”, the EU aims to end this sorry saga of suspense. Great Britain’s ‘Great Gamble’ has left everyone “brexhausted”. Says Conservative MP Oliver Letwin, “I am past caring what the deal is.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Brexit has taken a huge toll on Britain. Tory MP Dominic Grieve fears his nation could “spiral into oblivion”. The leadership collapse, the political breakdown, party infighting, parliamentary chaos, public polarisation, cabinet revolts, dysfunction and uncertainties have left the UK weak, divided, confused, tired and humiliated. Through history, Britain has been envied, admired, respected, resented or reviled. But never pitied. This, too, has come to pass.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/03/29/brexit-in-uk-mayhem-in-theresa-mays-land.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/03/29/brexit-in-uk-mayhem-in-theresa-mays-land.html Sat Mar 30 16:33:53 IST 2019 eyes-dont-lie-nor-do-guts <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/03/15/eyes-dont-lie-nor-do-guts.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2019/3/15/65-Eyes-dont-lie-nor-do-guts-new.jpg" /> <p>Tina Turner sings, “What’s love got to do with it?” But I wonder, “What’s eyes got to do with it?”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Apparently, a lot. It turns out eye colour can determine if you are likely to get depressed in winter.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>It is still cold in northern Europe, the landscape white with snow, trees sparkling with ice-crusted leaves. Breathtakingly beautiful when looking out from a heated room. Step outside and breath freezes. Even before their breath, the brains of Asians and Arabs congeal when winter descends. Anecdotally, they seem more blue than the blue-eyed locals. Now there is science to back this empirical observation.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>New research suggests that people with dark eyes are more prone to the appropriately named Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), a type of depression triggered by diminished sunlight during the short winter days. A study by the United Kingdom’s University of Wales found that black eyes absorb more sunlight, just like black clothes do. As dark eyes are used to absorbing more light, they become more sunlight-deprived in winter, causing mood disorders. Blue eyes absorb less light anyway, so they are less affected.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Colour is determined by the pigment called melanin. The more melanin, the darker the iris and skin, and greater the sunlight absorption. More melanin means slower metabolism of vitamin D obtained from sunlight. This is evolution’s shield—in the tropics, people are dark-skinned to ensure they don’t get excess vitamin D, while people in the cold north are fair-skinned so they absorb sufficient amounts. Melanin also produces melatonin, a hormone released in the brain that balances the circadian sleep-wake cycles. Produced in right quantities, melatonin helps people fall asleep, but in surplus, can make them lethargic or depressed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Not surprisingly, SAD victims suffer disturbed sleep, weight gain, energy loss and a desire to withdraw socially. As with all research, there are caveats—not all people with dark eyes develop SAD while many blue-eyed people do. Eye colour is inherited, but SAD is not necessarily a genetic curse even though it predisposes some to depression symptoms. These can be countered by lifestyle choices—walking during lunch hour on sunny days help. Unfortunately, cold and listlessness induce SAD victims to huddle indoors, making matters worse.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Stomach microbes can also make matters worse. What’s bacteria got to do with it? Apparently, a lot. Researchers link depression, anxiety and autism to bacteria in the gut. Politicians obsess about the Axis of Evil, but scientists scrutinise the ‘gut-brain axis’. A recent study by Belgian scientists found that people suffering from depression lack certain species of gut bacteria.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Trillions of microorganisms swarm our stomach. The universe of microbiome or the community of beneficial and harmful gut microbes unique to every person is partly inherited from our mothers. Again, this is a genetic blessing or curse, but those deficient in good bacteria can compensate by eating fruits and vegetables. It is perhaps to generate healthy bacteria that traditional societies across the world include fermented food in their diets—sauerkraut, kimchi, curds.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Stomach bacteria affects both mind and body. Scientists draw correlations between unhealthy gut and type 2 diabetes, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, colon cancer, high blood pressure and heart disease. Eye, brain, body, stomach, they are all interconnected, exactly like the cosmos. New Age gurus say, “Don’t look up, look within.” Of course, they don’t mean look into your gut, even though we now know it is an abode of good health and fine qualities, ranging from intuition (gut instincts) to courage (guts).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Maybe there is more to navel gazing than we imagined.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/03/15/eyes-dont-lie-nor-do-guts.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/03/15/eyes-dont-lie-nor-do-guts.html Fri Mar 15 11:31:55 IST 2019 coarse-cacophonies <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/02/16/coarse-cacophonies.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2019/2/16/26-Coarse-cacophonies-new.jpg" /> <p>In his essay Politics and the English Language, author George Orwell wrote: “Politics itself is a mass of lies, evasions, folly, hatred and schizophrenia. When the general atmosphere is bad, language must suffer.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Political discourse has coarsened since the twin shocks of 2016—the Brexit referendum and the election of Donald Trump. Language reflects this. It is not just rebels and terrorists, but even mainstream politicians and institutional leaders curse, insult, damn and doom their opponents. European Council president Donald Tusk tweeted: “I have been wondering what that special place in hell looks like, for those who promoted Brexit, without even a sketch of a plan how to carry it out safely.” Retaliation was swift. Northern Ireland’s DUP party that props up British Prime Minister Theresa May’s government, called Tusk “a devilish, trident-wielding Euro-maniac”.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Insults have been hurled through history, but the best ones are those that fly on the wings of wit and sarcasm. Winston Churchill was in a league of his own. About his rival and former British prime minister Clement Attlee, he said: “An empty cab pulled up to Downing Street, and Clement Attlee got out.” Churchill was equally devastating about foreigners. He said of French president Charles de Gaulle: “What can you do with a man who looks like a female llama surprised when bathing?” Churchill was funny, profound, stinging and clever with words, evoking powerful imagery to immortalise his barbs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Across the Atlantic, a favourite butt of barbs is former US president George W. Bush—mainly because of his corny declarations. “The vast majority of our imports come from outside the country,” he announced. “Our enemies are innovative and resourceful, and so are we. They never stop thinking about new ways to harm our country and our people, and neither do we.” Bush had both wealth and an excellent education. But, Barney Frank, former United States senator, observed, ”People might cite George Bush as proof that you can be totally impervious to the effects of Harvard and Yale education.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Senator Adlai Stevenson II’s wit was legendary, but many other American congressmen also endeared themselves with their quips. Bob Dole said: “History buffs probably noted the reunion at a Washington party... of three ex-presidents: Carter, Ford and Nixon—See No Evil, Hear No Evil and Evil.” An excellent communicator, Bill Clinton was admired for his grand, uplifting statements. But, off-colour jokes came just as easily to him—“Behind every great man is a woman. Behind every woman is a great behind.” Like Churchill, Clinton came up with evocative imagery: “Being president is a little like being the grounds-keeper at a cemetery; there are plenty of people below you, but no one is listening.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The world is listening to Donald Trump, but they do not hear wit, metaphors or deft play of words. Much of what Trump says is unfit for children. The rest are slurs, pitting one against another. Bad grammar, spelling mistakes and name-calling pockmark his language.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>His insults are crude abuse, repeated ad nauseam so they stick in our heads, congealing thought and language. Crooked Hillary, Little Marco, Crazy Joe Biden, Lyin’ Ted; the bar is lowered, so his Republican opponent Ted Cruz called him a “pathological liar”, “utterly amoral” and a “serial philanderer”. Presidency has not softened Trump’s insulting rhetoric and incendiary language. Orwell wrote in 1946, the year Trump was born: “If thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/02/16/coarse-cacophonies.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/02/16/coarse-cacophonies.html Sat Feb 16 12:35:58 IST 2019 the-warrior-gene-conundrum <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/01/30/the-warrior-gene-conundrum.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2019/1/30/56-The-warrior-gene-conundrum-new.jpg" /> <p>Five generations of men in an extended Dutch family were violent. One attacked his mother, a brother raped his sister and another forced his two sisters to undress at gunpoint. One tried to run his boss down with his car for criticising his work as sub-standard. Two attempted arson when their parents died in a car crash. Research by geneticist Han Brunner revealed the men had a genetic defect. They lacked an enzyme that regulated mood, resulting in heightened emotions and reduced impulse control.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>So, are criminals born and not made? Brunner published his findings a quarter of a century ago, but even today experts resist bringing biology into courtrooms to influence judicial outcomes. After all, genetics is still a work in progress.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Anthony Blas Yepez hopes a retrial will reduce the 22-year jail term he received three years ago. He bludgeoned to death his girlfriend’s 75-year-old step-grandfather, George Ortiz. When Ortiz hit his girlfriend, Yepez, blinded by rage, pounced on him. On recovering his senses, Yepez claims he was sitting atop a bloody and dead Ortiz. The couple doused Ortiz with cooking oil, set fire to him and fled in his car.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Yepez now argues his sentence should be lessened because his ‘warrior gene’ predisposes him to act violently. As Brunner documented, the defective monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene causes impulsive aggression. Science must aid law, Yepez pleads. But, others say efforts to “medicalise crime” should be nipped. Opponents argue that instead of decreasing sentences, jail terms of convicts with MAOA should be increased to protect society as they are likely to be repeat offenders. New Mexico’s Supreme Court in the United States will review Yepez’s appeal.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The issue highlights not just the symbiosis of science and law, it also raises philosophical, even religious dilemmas about the concept of free will that underpins the inviolable American principle of freedom. Legal scholars mock headlines like ‘Pity the murderer, his genes made him do it’ as negating notions of free will and human agency-defining doctrines that make us human.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Many Indians have no problem embracing the contradictory ideology of free will and astrology. Devil’s advocates cheekily argue that molecular biology reaffirms astrology—genes, like the stars, reveal a person’s constitution, events, behaviour and predisposition to ailments.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>For decades, blaming biology for aggression was unacceptable. The current thaw is slowed by caution. Genes and environmental factors contribute to criminal behaviour, but as Christopher Ferguson, a psychology professor at Florida’s Stetson University, says: “They obviously put pressure on us to behave in certain ways, but we still can tell right from wrong.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Besides, complex human behaviour cannot be explained by one gene or incident. MAOA is a piece of the puzzle, but multiple genes and a web of environmental factors—such as trauma, indoctrination, learned behaviour and childhood abuse—play their role. Says Brunner, “The environment can aggravate or alleviate the effects of this gene defect.” The effects can be alleviated through diet, drugs, exercise, counselling, meaningful relationships and social activities.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Women are the carriers of the faulty gene, but it manifests in sons. Men commit 90 per cent of all murders. Not surprising when 30 per cent of men have MAOA. So, is that why men are more violent than women? Maybe. Maybe not. Swedish Vikings were notoriously ferocious. DNA tests on what was assumed to be a 1,000-year-old Swedish warlord in battle dress revealed a woman warrior. So, you do not need MAOA to punch and plunder, just as there are men with the warrior gene who do not maim and massacre.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/01/30/the-warrior-gene-conundrum.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/01/30/the-warrior-gene-conundrum.html Sat Feb 02 15:05:32 IST 2019 yellow-fever-hits-europe <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/01/18/yellow-fever-hits-europe.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2019/1/18/53-Yellow-fever-hits-Europe-new.jpg" /> <p>Revolution ravages reform. Angry demonstrators hurled bricks and Molotov cocktails, burning down a government office in the pilgrim town of Le Puy-en-Velay, 500km south of Paris. The tranquil Catholic hub is now one among hundreds of battlegrounds across France. For two months, police have been battling protestors with water cannons, tear gas, dogs and armoured vehicles. “It was bizarre, like being in a civil war,” says Japanese tourist Itsuki Takahashi, who got caught in a Paris demonstration.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The Gilets Jaunes (Yellow Vests) movement erupted spontaneously when President Emmanuel Macron raised fuel taxes as an environment protection measure. The hike backfired spectacularly. Truck driver Eric Drouet called for protests and mechanic Ghislain Coutard urged demonstrators to wear the neon safety vests—required by law to be in every car—as a symbol of solidarity. It went viral across France and beyond, into Belgium, Italy and Germany.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Protests are mostly peaceful, with a large number of women and youth “revolutionaries”. Housewives, students, pensioners and workers are blockading tollbooths, roads, fuel depots, town squares and schools. The intensity of the spreading insurrection forced Macron to scrap the tax. But now, protestors demand his resignation. Says Coutard, nicknamed “Giletman” or “Vestman”: “The president must come out of his hole and face the French people. Not with a press release, but on the ground.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The fuel tax became a trigger for ordinary people to revolt against the “pro-rich” Macron. Thomas Desmaret, a young former soldier-turned-demonstrator says: “I cannot get work. I rely on food banks for my daily bread. It is wrong.” While the masses suffer dwindling incomes, rising costs, unemployment and higher taxes, Macron abolished wealth tax, benefiting the rich. Public fury exploded. People felt the “elitist, aloof and arrogant” Macron violated the French Revolution ideals of fraternity and equality. So, they used the last ideal of liberty to vent their anger. Egging them, deputy prime minister of Italy’s populist government Luigi Di Maio, who also heads the anti-establishment Five Star Movement, blogged, “Yellow Vests, do not weaken!”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>No signs of that, yet. Affiliated to neither trade unions nor political parties, the movement is leaderless, decentralised, flexible and uncoordinated. Activists congregate suddenly at locations, melt when faced with police force, only to regroup elsewhere. Coutard predicts: “The anger is too intense. Macron responded too late. In future it is going to get rough.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>When the going gets rough, the rough get going. The movement’s looseness is a strength, making it hard for the authorities to track, control and crush. But, it is also a weakness, creating possibilities for it to spin out of control or get hijacked by extremist groups, as evident in some violent demonstrations.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Discontent is seething not only in France but also across Europe, in countries ranging from Serbia to Hungary. Battling economic and social distress, ordinary people are rising in protest against callous governments and the entitled elite. They resent their tax burdens at a time of job uncertainties, especially when jet-setting elites flaunt their wealth. Inequality and imposition of taxes on impoverished farmers, while the tax-exempt aristocracy lived in splendour, are among the causes that led to the French Revolution.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>To placate the protestors, a besieged Macron urges a two-month break to conduct town hall meetings and engage in a “great national debate”. He is borrowing an idea from an earlier time. It did not stop the French Revolution.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/01/18/yellow-fever-hits-europe.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2019/01/18/yellow-fever-hits-europe.html Fri Jan 18 12:49:57 IST 2019 in-the-nick-of-time <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/12/21/in-the-nick-of-time.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2018/12/21/108-Nick-Ut-new.jpg" /> <p>I wondered why the girl was running naked on the highway” says Nick Ut, recalling the instant before he photographed the screaming nine-year old. It was 1972. Even then, decades before the advent of social media, photographs and protests had a way of going viral. The girl, Phan Thi Kim Phuc, became renowned as the “Napalm Girl” immortalising the terror and cruelty of the Vietnam War. This fabled photograph of the My Lai massacre triggered a hurricane of public outrage, contributing to the American pullout from the disastrous war.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Worth more than a million words, the picture transformed Nick into an international celebrity. He is in Kochi for his photo exhibition “From Hell to Hollywood”, marking the first edition of the Watertown Festival, held in conjunction with the Kochi-Muziris Biennale. A must-experience event for art lovers and indeed all thinking public, the biennale is impactful because of the creative and compelling manner in which Indian and international artists depict the critical issues of our times. Nick’s exhibition is held in the charming Mocha Art Café in Kochi’s Jew Town.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>It was Nick’s iconic picture that nailed the lie that Napalm was not being used on civilians. Then US president Richard Nixon tried to discredit the picture as “fake”. Somethings never change! Says Nick, “They said Kim was burnt by cooking oil. Napalm tears the skin off the body. It blasted away Kim’s skin and clothes. I could see smoke coming out of her skinless body.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>As an Associated Press (AP) photographer, Nick should have taken more pictures. But he could not. He hurried to his vehicle to grab a raincoat to cover the tormented child. She had 80 per cent burns and zero chances of survival. Nick rushed her to hospitals nearby, but was turned away as the staff did not wish to waste their energy or precious medicines on a “hopeless case”. Eventually, he succeeded in taking her to the American base hospital. Much later, after Kim became world-famous, she went to John Hopkins hospital in the US for treatment. A grandmother, Kim now lives in Canada.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Inevitably, none of Nick’s rich trove of subsequent photographs attained the stardom of his legendary picture taken almost half a century ago. But his talent has not dimmed. His subsequent photographs continue to have that arresting quality. With unerring instinct, he captures in a split second the foible or flaw in his subjects—O.J. Simpson getting out of the car both feet planted on the ground, court documents in hand and a crafty smirk on his face; Michael Jackson dandily flipping his long hair as he enters the courtroom; a beaming Obama escorting his daughter Malia; a jet taking off, marvelously silhouetted in black inside a huge, incandescent full moon; the divine bliss on the face of a snow monkey soaking in Japan’s hot springs. The exhibition also features lesser-known photographs chronicling Vietnam War atrocities.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>At 67, Vietnam-born Nick bustles with energy, engaging with issues and strangers with child-like curiosity and enthusiasm. With striking bushy, black eyebrows contrasting his white hair, he looks like a quirky film negative. He delights in showing me pictures of him with celebrities that he stores on his mobile phone. They are all there—the Clintons, the Obamas and a parade of Hollywood stars, singers, sportsmen and models. He chuckles as he shows pictures of him cuddling gorgeous blondes who tower over him. Nick lives in California and retired from AP last year. So what’s he going to do next? He smiles: “Keep taking pictures until I die.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/12/21/in-the-nick-of-time.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/12/21/in-the-nick-of-time.html Fri Dec 21 15:57:49 IST 2018 theresa-may-soldiers-on <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/11/22/theresa-may-soldiers-on.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2018/11/22/30-Theresa-May-soldiers-on-new.jpg" /> <p>I am going nowhere,” asserts British Prime Minister Theresa May with her trademark firmness. That is precisely the problem. She is not going anywhere in Britain with her Brexit deal. She meant she was not quitting over the uproar regarding her unpopular Brexit withdrawal arrangement from the European Union (EU). Struggling to please everyone, May winds up displeasing all.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The opposition Labour Party and the far-right Brexiteers rejected outright her 585-page exit deal. So did a significant faction of her Conservative Party and her own cabinet. Several ministers resigned. Most embarrassingly, Brexit Secretary Dominic Raab quit, alleging May’s deal “presents a real threat to the integrity of the UK” and because “the EU holds a veto power on our ability to exit.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Raab is the second British Brexit secretary to resign in as many years. State Secretary for Work and Pensions Esther McVey, who also resigned, claimed the deal means giving away 39 billion pounds to the EU “without getting anything in return. We have gone from no deal is better than a bad deal to any deal is better than no deal.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Critics say May’s deal is “rotten” because Britain must comply with EU rules until December 2020—probably longer. The fact is Brexiteers had sold a pipedream to the public, promising that Brexit would extract the advantages of being in the EU, while slamming the door on irritating responsibilities. May had loyally tried to extract such a deal from the EU. They slammed the door on her.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>May declares there are only three choices now: “This deal… leave with no deal… or no Brexit at all”. Dieter Kempf, head of the German Federation of Industry, warns, “A no deal, hard Brexit is disastrous for Britain and Europe.” European Council’s President Donald Tusk says, “We are also prepared for Britain to cancel Brexit.” May’s underlying message: Take my Brexit deal or reap chaos.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>No one is buying that… yet. Opponents claim no deal is better than abject surrender to the EU. A clique within the Conservative Party manoeuvres to topple May. The opposition parties drool over prospects of early elections. As different groups thrust and parry, wordsmiths delight in conjuring phrases like Brexit Wreckit, Brexit exit, Conservatives disMay and so on. But Brexit is no word play. It is a serious process that profoundly impacts Britain’s future for generations to come. EU’s Tusk tweeted, “I will do everything to make this farewell the least painful possible, both for you and for us.” After EU endorsement, the deal must secure approval from the fractious British Parliament in December. Given the opposition to May’s deal, it could be May Day for Britain.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Britain once ruled the waves, now uncertainty rules Britain. May is no Brexiteer, but gamely shoulders the responsibility of delivering the referendum’s verdict. Despite being mocked and attacked, she tenaciously soldiers on, rising each morning “to fresh hell” as the British media describes. Architect Gary Debeer dislikes her deal, but admires May’s doggedness. Says he, “May is the only cook able to endure the heat in the kitchen.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Politicians bombard the public with barbs comparing Brexit with World War II, inflaming emotions from fear to courage. Voters are now weary. Political consensus is destroyed, society is polarised and all are fatigued by the ceaseless fusillade of arguments. Fanning nostalgic memories of Pax Britannica and the era of the glorious empire, Brexiteers had trumpeted that freed from the EU’s shackles, Britain would find her rightful place in the world. That is happening. But Britons are discovering: It is not a good place.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/11/22/theresa-may-soldiers-on.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/11/22/theresa-may-soldiers-on.html Thu Nov 22 16:08:26 IST 2018 the-final-gamble <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/11/10/the-final-gamble.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2018/11/10/35-Angela-Merkel.jpg" /> <p>She was the right person, at the right time, in the right place. After the Berlin Wall fell, chancellor Helmut Kohl, the father of German reunification, wanted to induct a suitable candidate from the former East Germany into his cabinet. Angela Merkel was just right: intelligent, hardworking, unobtrusive and a woman. He picked her. She never looked back. The evolution of “Kohl’s Girl” into “Germany’s Mummy” is a fascinating saga. But now the final chapter begins.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>After electoral losses in two states, Merkel announced that she will quit as Christian Democratic Union (CDU) leader next month and bow out when her fourth term as chancellor ends in 2021. She could henceforth be a lame duck or even be ousted prematurely by an ambitious successor, the collapse of her ruling coalition or early elections. Merkel says her decision is “part of the plan”, but acknowledges that it is a risk.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Though cautious, she has gambled before, and won. Merkel bravely demanded Kohl’s removal when he got embroiled in a slush fund scandal, and eventually succeeded him. She toppled powerful rivals. One such frustrated rival is Friedrich Merz, now a front runner to succeed her as party leader. After losing protracted battles with Merkel, he quit politics in 2009. Unlike Merkel, Merz is provocative and entertaining. Another contender is Merkel’s 38-year-old health minister and feisty critic, Jens Spahn, who proclaims, “Burqa is the opposite of an open society.” Both men will drag the CDU back to the right with stricter immigration policies, ending Merkel’s centrist, even leftist, drift.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Merkel’s preferred choice is Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer, popularly called AKK, also nicknamed ‘Mini Merkel’. That is a disadvantage. Merkel’s stature has eroded since the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis. As European Union leader, she refused to waive debts. Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal and Ireland reeled under austerity and recession. Enraged demonstrators burned effigies of Merkel with a Hitler-moustache. Within Germany, she was dubbed “car chancellor” for her proximity to the cheating, polluting auto lobby. Voters fled to the Green Party.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>“Merkel’s Achilles heel was her 2015 refugee policy that allowed a million asylum-seekers to flood Europe,” says political analyst Kate Hansen Bundt. Citizens were outraged. Defying Merkel, several small European countries refused entry to asylum-seekers. Floundering far right parties in Europe found a cause célèbre. Anti-immigration populism roused voters. Last year, the xenophobic Alternative for Germany entered parliament for the first time and is now represented in all 16 state parliaments.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Merkel’s exit raises questions regarding the fate of the Eurozone’s monetary and institutional reforms. Merz warns, “Europe’s biggest challenge in the next few years will be holding the Eurozone together.” Though pro-reform, Merkel has been entangled in fractious local politics for the past year.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>For two decades, she towered. But now Merkel-fatigue saps. Janis Emmanouilidis, head of the European Policy Centre, says, “She is the longest-serving head of government in Europe. People appreciate stability in Berlin. In times of uncertainty, stability is a great asset. But Europe without Angela Merkel is possible.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>It is also inevitable. Later than sooner, hopes Merkel, as she plays her last political gamble. But she also knows that change can unravel even the most carefully laid plans. Change accelerates. And an old mantra gives way to the new: she is the wrong person, at the wrong time, in the wrong place.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/11/10/the-final-gamble.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/11/10/the-final-gamble.html Sat Nov 10 15:28:22 IST 2018 era-of-quantum-politics <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/10/12/era-of-quantum-politics.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2018/10/12/28-era-of-quantum-politics-new.jpg" /> <p>Scientists like Albert Einstein are famous across the world, but few people understand the theory of relativity or quantum physics. Simply put, quantum theory explains the movement of subatomic particles that make up the universe. Physicists describe the behaviour of these particles the way journalists depict politicians—weird, wacky, mysterious, inexplicable, even diabolical. Particles behave randomly and unpredictably, yet there is a pattern. Particles aim to reach their destination; politicians aim to get votes. Same thing, really.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Unexpected political twists such as Brexit and Donald Trump’s victory are manifestations of ‘Quantum Politics’, a phrase coined by physicist-turned-president of Armenia, Armen Sarkissian. Like physics, where atoms were once deemed the smallest and indivisible constituents of matter, politics, too, needs a mandatory update, necessitated by technology and social media. In physics, as in politics, linear, reductionist thinking is outdated. We now live in an era of uncertainty, unpredictability, accelerating change, complexity and interconnectedness.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>An eerie factoid of quantum physics is that the very act of observing the particle makes it alter its path. Observation changes outcome. This is happening in quantum politics. Social media makes it possible for people near and far to observe unexpected developments. This provokes impactful reactions even in unconnected regions or triggers change in political behaviour or decisions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>American Republican Senator Jeff Flake was waylaid in an elevator by two rape survivors. Their emotional outburst went viral, forcing Flake to change his decision and ask for an FBI background check on allegations of sexual attacks against Trump’s Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh. Observation changed outcome. A massacre in the Middle East causes a terrorist retaliation in the west. Or, diasporas mount powerful social media campaigns to reverse a government policy in their home country.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Quantum physics demonstrates another strange phenomenon—particles can exist in two, even multiple dimensions at the same time. This was inconceivable to us, until cyberspace made it comprehensible. People watch videos on their mobile phones, track election results and answer emails, inhabiting several worlds at the same time. Flake was in a Washington elevator, but he was simultaneously in millions of homes and heads.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Quantum physics experiments reveal another spooky trait: particles ‘know’ if we are looking and so change their trajectory, but they also know if we are planning to look. They can anticipate. Is this what we call intuition, empathy, telepathy? So it is utterly natural for clever politicians to anticipate public reaction and adjust their behaviour accordingly.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Is quantum politics new? Of course not. Quantum physics existed in the universe long before scientists discovered it. Quantum politics is probably as old as humankind, but there is no doubt that technology and social media have forever altered the pathways of politics. Already specialists called ‘quants’ apply mathematical models to evaluate highly complex financial instruments.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The magnitude of complexity grows exponentially, constantly. Until 2005, there was a total of 130 exabytes of data accumulated since the dawn of humankind (five exabytes represent all words ever spoken by human beings, says computer professional James Huggins). In 2020, we will have 40,900 exabytes of data. How is it even remotely possible for human beings to analyse so much data? They cannot. Enter the new species of artificial intelligence and algorithms that have already begun deciphering data too complex for humans to process. For politics, this is another ‘quantum’ leap.</p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/10/12/era-of-quantum-politics.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/10/12/era-of-quantum-politics.html Sat Oct 13 17:43:29 IST 2018 bounced-chequers <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/09/28/bounced-chequers.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2018/9/28/56-bounced-chequers-new.jpg" /> <p>For centuries, Britain determined the fate of other nations. Now it cannot seem to decide its own. Worse, others are defining its future.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>In the June 2016 referendum, British people voted to leave the European Union (EU). Six months remain for the divorce to take effect, but Britain is nowhere close to a deal with the EU on future relations.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The EU opposes Britain’s “cherry picking”— such as wanting free movement of goods, but not people. The price of belonging to the single market is compliance with EU laws. “In plain English, this means Britain must continue to accept uncontrolled migration from the EU,” protests British Prime Minister Theresa May.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>At EU’s Salzburg summit, May presented her Brexit proposal for “frictionless trade”, drafted at a cabinet meeting in Chequers—her medieval, official country residence. “This is the only way forward,” she asserted firmly. At summits, leaders play to the gallery. May’s resolute posture was intended to signal that Britain remains tough and unwavering. It backfired spectacularly. Instead of a breakthrough, the Chequers proposal appeared dead on arrival.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>“Unacceptable,” declared French President Emmanuel Macron, who is infuriated by the false claims of Eurosceptic populists rampaging across Europe. EU leaders also need to demonstrate that post-Brexit Britain will be worse off, if only to discourage potential exits by other members. “Brexit shows it is not easy to leave the EU, it is not without costs, it is not without consequences,” thundered Macron. President of the European Council, Donald Tusk, explained the Chequers plan “risks undermining the single market. It will not work”. Britain’s age-old, perfidious divide-and-rule intrigues also did not work.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Shaken by the EU’s united and blunt rejection, May admitted, “We are at an impasse.” Apropos her post-summit press conference, The Independent’s political writer Tom Peck mocked, “Theresa May’s Salzburg humiliation confirms that a full blown political crisis is coming. When the prime minister is sweating profusely, tripping over her words and chewing on her own gums… it is not unfair to come to that conclusion.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The crisis will unfurl at the Conservative Party’s forthcoming annual conference, where an embattled May faces hostile party members. Critics and political foes sharpen their daggers. Rebuffed by her members of Parliament and rejected by the EU, her Chequers proposal lies in tatters. “I think Chequers now has no supporters at all,” said Jacob Rees-Mogg, Conservative MP. “I doubt even the Downing Street cat is any longer backing it.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>There are calls for a second Brexit referendum. Campaigners believe more people will vote to remain in the EU now that they are aware of the uncertainty and complexity of Brexit. May rejected another referendum saying, “The people have spoken.” But analysts do not rule out a referendum or a snap election.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Britain could crash out of the EU without a deal. “No deal is better than a bad deal,” May said. But, Mike Carney, Bank of England’s governor, warned, “No deal can be as bad as the 2008 financial crisis,” triggering unemployment, recession, devaluation and house price crashes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Efforts continue to cobble a deal in the coming months, not least, because for EU countries Britain is an important trading and security partner. It suits the UK and the EU to fuel the perception that Brexit negotiations are gruelling. Then, if a deal is struck, it is seen as hard fought and hard won.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Divorce is invariably messy. But, be it the destiny of humans or nations, we know there is always life after the turmoil. What we do not know is if Britain’s mess will get messier or if it will somehow work itself out.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/09/28/bounced-chequers.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/09/28/bounced-chequers.html Fri Sep 28 12:42:28 IST 2018 xenophobes-with-a-cause <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/09/14/xenophobes-with-a-cause.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2018/9/14/64-Xenophobes-new.jpg" /> <p>I am not a Nazi, but....” Many Germans begin this way before expressing hostility to the flood of refugees in their midst. Migrants have been involved in a few high-profile murders, rapes, robberies, street fights and in hooliganism. Dr Monika Kurth complains, “We have legitimate concerns regarding migrants, but if we talk about this, we are called racists.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The simmering racial tensions erupted in Chemnitz, an eastern city of 2.5 lakh people. A young German man was stabbed to death in a street altercation between an Iraqi and a Syrian migrant. Emotions flared when incendiary lies spread on right-wing social media groups that the man was killed while saving a German woman from migrant attackers.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The far-right Alternative for Germany (AfD)—the main opposition party in Parliament—and the Pegida, an ultranationalist, Islamophobic, anti-immigration movement, summoned street protests. From nurses to neo-Nazis, 8,000 people congregated, overwhelming the police. There were scary incidents of mobs hunting down dark-skinned foreigners. Chancellor Angela Merkel sternly condemned the “hate in our streets” as unacceptable. But, AfD leader Alexander Gauland said that when murders were committed, “it is normal for people to go berserk”.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Most demonstrators were ordinary townspeople, but local police say neo-Nazis and football hooligans from elsewhere, too, had arrived. They raised the banned Nazi salute, and shouted “Foreigners Out”, “You are not welcome here” and “Luegenpresse” (lying press). For Germans, this is not merely evocative of Donald Trump’s rants against fake news, but a throwback to the rise of Nazi Germany. Observed Spiegel Online, “Of course, history is not repeating itself, but that a far-right mob is on a rampage... is reminiscent of the situation during the Weimar Republic.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The root of the current rage lies in the arrival of 16 lakh refugees in 2015. German municipalities are overwhelmed. The migrants are mostly young, single, jobless Muslim men who do not speak German and lack the moderating influence of a family.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The Chemnitz violence symbolises the failure to integrate ghettoised immigrants. It also symbolises the failing integration of East Germans. Three decades after the Berlin Wall fell, erstwhile East Germany inhabitants have been poorly integrated into the booming German economy. Communist East Germany was white and without foreigners. Migrants have now become lightning rods for hate and anger, as worried locals fear foreigners will steal their jobs and subvert their culture. Predictably, former East German areas are AfD strongholds.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>“We will not allow the extreme right to infiltrate our society,” said Minister of Justice Katarina Barley. But, they have. Chemnitz revealed disturbing links between the ultranationalists and local authorities. The migrant identity of the murder suspects were leaked to Pegida. In Bavaria, two policemen were suspended for performing the Nazi salute.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Foreign Affairs Minister Heiko Maas told Bild that, to crush far-right extremism, “we have to get up from our sofas and open our mouths. The silent majority must get louder.” He struck a chord. Next day, 65,000 people attended the “#wirsindmehr” (#WeAreMore) anti-fascist concert.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Across Europe, anti-immigration populism surges. Early this week, the Sweden Democrats party which has neo-Nazi roots, significantly won nearly one-fifth of the votes in the national elections. If Merkel’s cherished European values of openness and liberalism are to be safeguarded, more Europeans must get off their sofas... and not just to attend rock concerts.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/09/14/xenophobes-with-a-cause.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/09/14/xenophobes-with-a-cause.html Fri Sep 14 14:26:05 IST 2018 high-on-pain <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/08/31/high-on-pain.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2018/8/31/24-high-on-pain-new.jpg" /> <p>Opioids seem to be the opium of the American masses. Worse, opioid medications—or prescription pain killers—are killing thousands of people. Of the 72,000 who died of drug overdose in 2017, two-thirds died from taking opioids. That is a higher toll than deaths caused by guns, car accidents and HIV/AIDS or military casualties in the Vietnam and Iraq wars combined. Dr Nicole Saphier, radiologist at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, says, opioid fatalities are “like a 9/11 every three weeks”.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The US accounts for five per cent of the world population, but consumes 80 per cent of the global supply of painkillers. Why do Americans take so much painkillers? The answer is easy availability. Keith Humphreys, a psychiatry professor at Stanford, says that opioid pharmaceutical companies opened a Pandora’s box with their “aggressive marketing and generous donations to political causes and regulatory bodies”.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Earlier, only specialists could prescribe opioid medications to relieve cancer pain. But, in 1998, Big Pharma’s lobbying resulted in laws permitting even dentists to prescribe opioids for all kinds of ailments—stress-related pain, toothaches and chronic maladies. The sale of Purdue Pharma’s opioid, OxyContin, skyrocketed in four years from $48 million to $1.2 billion in 2000. With the root causes unaddressed, pain worsened, increasing dependence on the pill.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Opioids are addictive. Patients crave opioids to dull their pain, for the euphoria it induces or for awakening their deadened senses. Overdosing began. Over 90 million Americans take prescription opioids; two million are addicted. When prescription rules were tightened, patients sought illegal street opioid (heroin derived from opium) and the potent illicitly manufactured synthetic heroin called fentanyl which is 80 times stronger than morphine. These are smuggled from China and Mexico. Studies show that 75 per cent of heroin users started with painkillers. Author Beth Mary who investigated the opioid crisis titled her book Dopesick: Dealers, Doctors, and the Drug Company that Addicted America.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The opioid epidemic has contributed to American life expectancy falling since 2015, the first decline in half a century. President Donald Trump declared opioids a health emergency, but de-addiction and rehabilitation is an extremely difficult process. “It is much easier in America to get high than it is to get help,” says German Lopez, senior reporter at the Vox.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Initially, most opioid victims were low-skilled, white, middle-aged men made jobless by deindustrialisation, globalisation and outsourcing. Support for Trump was greatest in the counties with the highest rates of prescription-opioid use. But, opioid abuse is now rising among blacks and youth. Celebrities, too are victims. Right-wing media personality Rush Limbaugh admitted that he was an opioid addict. Musician Tom Petty and pop star Prince died of fentanyl overdose. Actor Philip Seymour Hoffman died of heroin overdose. Actor Heath Ledger was found dead in New York, overdosed on prescription opioids and sedatives.</p> <p>In addition to opioids, many celebrities admit taking sedatives, anti-anxiety medicines and other cocktail of drugs like the one that took Michael Jackson’s life. Tesla founder Elon Musk recently admitted that he was taking Ambien sedatives to help him get through an “excruciating” year.</p> <p>Rich or poor, the promise of the American Dream comes with its peril. In addition to drug overdose, suicides and alcohol-related deaths are also rising. Says Leo Beletsky, associate professor of law and health sciences at Northeastern University, “Something deeper has gone wrong in American life.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/08/31/high-on-pain.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/08/31/high-on-pain.html Fri Aug 31 11:39:39 IST 2018 overheard-at-a-visa-centre <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/08/18/overheard-at-a-visa-centre.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2018/8/18/57-overheard-new.jpg" /> <p>It is the job of American visa officers to ask personal, incisive questions. The US government presumes all visa applicants intend to migrate. It is your task to prove otherwise. Guilty until<br> proven innocent.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Norwegians get online visas, so it is mostly foreigners who undergo the mandatory interviews in Oslo. My 10-year visa had expired. Getting a new one means internment inside the US embassy for two hours without electronic devices. I am armed with newspapers, but don’t read a page. I am within earshot of the ongoing grilling. And, I am hooked.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>“Where are you from?” asks the goateed, middle-aged visa officer, his steely eyes belying his pleasant face. After office hours, he could easily be Uncle Ben flipping burgers on the grill.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>A: Muymym (unintelligible).</p> <p>Q: Yum Yum?</p> <p>A: Myanmar.</p> <p>Q: What are you studying?</p> <p>A: I am visiting PhD student.</p> <p>Q: I asked what are you studying?</p> <p>A: I am a visiting PhD student.</p> <p>Q: What’s that?</p> <p>A: I am doing research here in neuroscience.</p> <p>Q: Where have you done your master’s?</p> <p>A: I haven’t done master’s.</p> <p>Q: How do you do PhD without master’s?</p> <p>A: I have a medical degree.</p> <p>A few more questions, he gets his visa.</p> <p>Then there is a middle-aged couple.</p> <p>Q: You have Norwegian passports?</p> <p>A: Yes. We came to Norway 29 years ago.</p> <p>Q: You both are born in Iran. Why don’t you have Iranian passports?</p> <p>A: We are Christians. After the Ayatollah revolution, we didn’t feel safe.</p> <p>They get their visas.</p> <p>A young white man with poor English is next.</p> <p>Q: Where are you from?</p> <p>A: Ukraine. (I immediately suspect he is a hacker.)</p> <p>Q: How long have you been in Norway?</p> <p>A: Eight months.</p> <p>Q: What do you do here?</p> <p>A: Carpenter.</p> <p>Q: You have been to Pakistan. (Statement, not question; my suspicion strengthens)</p> <p>A: Yes, I doing jobs.</p> <p>Q: What kind of jobs?</p> <p>A: Building.</p> <p>Q: Pakistan imports labour from Ukraine?</p> <p>A: Short jobs.</p> <p>Q: Did you do machine learning?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The man does not understand. After a few more questions, the visa officer informs him that he doesn’t qualify, handing over a letter with the reasons. The officer has all the relevant information with him, but asks questions just to study reactions. His questions are short, sharp, surgical. In public interest, he should train TV anchors who ask these long-winded, convoluted questions that drive viewers and interviewees crazy. When goatee retires, he can run journalism classes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>A young man is called next. I am stunned. He is Norwegian! They don’t need to be interviewed, plus they are the immigrants Donald Trump wants!</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Q: What do you do?</p> <p>A: Farmer. Do you want to see my police record? (Typical Norwegian, honest, to-the-point).</p> <p>Q: Yes. You got arrested for possessing marijuana.</p> <p>A: Yes.</p> <p>Q: So how did you get arrested?</p> <p>A: It was after a party. I was drunk. I don’t remember much.... I was on the street, two civilian officers came…</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>At this point I am called for my interview at another window. It is over in two minutes, no personal questions. I get my visa. But, I will never know if the weed-killing, weed-smoking Norwegian farmer got his.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/08/18/overheard-at-a-visa-centre.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/08/18/overheard-at-a-visa-centre.html Sat Aug 18 19:21:26 IST 2018 reform-norms-not-Islam <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/06/23/reform-norms-not-Islam.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2018/6/23/45-reform-norms-not-Islam-new.jpg" /> <p>Alcoholics cannot be satisfied with lemonade. Likewise, jihadists cannot be neutralised by “reforming” Islam. Research exposes the fallacy that a violent version of Islam is what is attracting European youth to terrorism. What we are witnessing is not so much the radicalisation of Islam as the Islamisation of radicalism. A strain of extremism exists in most societies, manifesting itself in different forms (nationalism, communism, separatism) at different times with varying degrees of violence. Europe is no exception with the Red Brigades, Irish and Basque radicalism ravaging the continent in the 1970s and 1980s. Like alcoholics, fanatics will find their poison.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>French political scientist Olivier Roy has researched terrorists, especially in France and Belgium, who successfully conducted operations and, more importantly, those who failed, got caught or aborted their plans. A crucial finding: 95 per cent of them did not even go to mosques! They go to Syria not on theological missions or religious pilgrimages seeking paradise and virgins, but because the jihadi narrative fills a void. This is endorsed by another important finding: a quarter are converts and two-thirds are second-generation immigrants. Lack of integration, loss of a sense of belonging, identity crisis, poor education and joblessness nourish radicalisation. Interestingly, Roy found few first- or third-generation immigrants in the terrorists list. The first generation is busy struggling to survive, the third are better integrated, not least because they speak the host country’s language fluently.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Most of the terrorists are young and come from ghetto neighbourhoods. But if that is all it took, or the assumption that youngsters chafing against police mistreatment or racial slurs seek revenge, then there would be millions of Muslim terrorists. Roy points out there are additional distinct and common patterns among these terrorists. Youngsters interested in body building are enticed by Islamic State videos of strong men in Kalashnikovs. The era of “professional terrorists” who came from the Middle East to strike terror in the west have morphed to homegrown terrorists. In the past, they fled after attacking. Now they choose to die. Car bombs have given way to suicide bombings. In one instance, the attacker detonated explosives under his car seat. Clearly, there is a fascination with death. It is not that all who go to Syria want to die. The point is: those who commit acts of terror opt for istishhad or heroic martyrdom.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Another interesting pattern: pairs of brothers getting radicalised. In the Paris Bataclan theatre massacre, among the 20 attackers were five pairs of brothers. So not only the internet, but word of mouth, family ties and socialisation, however limited, also contribute to radicalisation. The absence of a strong father figure is a common factor. But intriguingly, a quarter of the terrorists fathered a child in the year preceding the attack.</p> <p>Another key finding: 50 per cent of the jihadists have a history in petty delinquency. Contrary to public perception, the top recruitment hub is not the mosque but the jail. This is true not only in Europe, but also in Indonesia, the Middle East, Australia and the United States. Al Qaeda leader Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, nicknamed “Shaikh of the slaughterers” for his grisly beheadings, was a lapsed Jordanian Muslim and street hoodlum radicalised in jail by a jihadist ideologue. The Toulouse and Charlie Hebdo attackers in France were petty criminals who used their illicit network to buy weapons with money earned from felony. Prisons also serve as universities of crime where callow terrorists learn from criminals the much-needed tradecraft of planning and executing offences. Many inmates emerge from jails far more dangerous than when they entered. Hundreds of jihadists will be released from European prisons in the next few years. To avert danger, authorities must brew a solution in which a key ingredient is reforming jails, not Islam.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/06/23/reform-norms-not-Islam.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/06/23/reform-norms-not-Islam.html Sat Jun 23 13:07:04 IST 2018 from-the-earths-darkest-corner <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/06/08/from-the-earths-darkest-corner.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2018/6/8/24-from-the-earths-darkest-corner-new.jpg" /> <p>It is all about nukes. Ahead of the “now on, now off” summit between Donald Trump and Kim Jong-un, we hear politicians, experts and TV anchors discuss “denuclearisation” of the Korean peninsula, struggling not to mispronounce it. But, a lone whisper from a slender young North Korean dissents: “It should be about people. North Korea is a concentration camp, and our citizens must be freed.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>But, as a 13-year old, Yeonmi Park herself escaped North Korea not in search of freedom, but for a bowl of rice. Her politically well-connected father was arrested for illegal trading, and sentenced to hard labour. North Korea’s economic collapse and famine resulted in widespread starvation. So severe were Yeonmi’s hunger pains that the local doctor misdiagnosed it as appendicitis and performed surgery without anaesthesia—the hospital did not have any. “My pains continued and I was without an appendix,” she says with gentle humour. Yeonmi is now 24, lives in New York, married to an American engineer, has a three-month old son and is studying at Columbia University. Yeonmi’s harrowing life story is a more compelling fairytale than Meghan Markle’s.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Yeonmi—who looks like a delicate Japanese doll—was attending the Oslo Freedom Forum, the annual celebration of global dissidence. Her exquisite beauty, flawless porcelain skin, thoughtful comments, droll humour, child-like innocence, demure mannerism and stylish clothes completely belie her past. She describes her homeland as “the darkest corner on earth”. Not just metaphorically, but literally. Beyond the river in her hometown, Hyesan, beckoned a realm of dazzling lights and plenty—China. This promised land tantalised with its bowls of rice. A thriving trade in human smuggling flourished, and one day it was her family’s turn to cross the frozen river. Thus began a journey into hell.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The Chinese broker who “bought” them raped her mother in front of her eyes— twice. He paid $60 for her mother and $200 for her as she was a child virgin. But, she did not remain one for long. She, too, was raped and became a sex slave. Eventually, South Korean missionaries helped them. “Earlier, it was Dear Leader; now Jesus was our saviour,” she says with a wry smile. The missionaries gave her North Korean group a compass. With that and little else, they walked across the Gobi Desert into Mongolia, and then to South Korea, and, finally, into the United States. When she first appeared on the world stage at an event in Dublin in 2014, she moved the audience to tears. The video went viral with millions of viewers.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Yeonmi has been trolled by North Korean and Chinese groups, and there are inconsistencies in her early narratives. She attributes them to language barriers, imperfect childhood memories and shame about disclosing gory details. Incredibly, Yeonmi bears no scars at all—neither physical nor psychological, unlike Marina Nemat, another rape victim who escaped from her Iranian tormentors and now lives in Canada. Nemat confides: “I have a wonderful husband and two sons who are in their 20s. I have never loved them. I am unable to.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Yeonmi is loving, calm and composed, smiling easily and spontaneously. But, she does not think Kim is a joke, despairing that lampooning the despot is a global pastime. “His haircut is funny,” she says. “He is fat. He is like a cartoon character. But, he is a murderer. Making fun of dictators is not enough. Why is it funny?” The only time she loses her composure is when she talks of her family still trapped in North Korea. She says: “I know my cousins are having a tough time. Maybe if the summit succeeds, I will be able to see them again. Nukes can wait. But, people die.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/06/08/from-the-earths-darkest-corner.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/06/08/from-the-earths-darkest-corner.html Fri Jun 08 15:21:20 IST 2018 the-constants-caste-and-politics <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/05/25/the-constants-caste-and-politics.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2018/5/25/19-the-constants-caste-and-politics-new.jpg" /> <p>Much has changed in India. But a few recent events reveal, much has not—neither in sleazy politics nor in vile casteism. Watching the degrading spectacle of Karnataka MLAs being bussed away and under police escort to thwart the predatory BJP from poaching them reminded me of the story I reported when this desperate measure was adopted for the first time—in the 1980s!</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>To prevent the Congress from poaching Telugu Desam MLAs, N.T. Rama Rao bussed his legislators to Karnataka. It was a pioneering idea hatched by Ramakrishna Hegde, former chief minister of Karnataka, who was determined to frustrate the Congress. He also had ambitions to unite the opposition. The MLA saga unfolded with much drama, tension, secrecy and suspense. But NTR, too, was able to safeguard his flock.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Since then, we have seen several parties—in different states, at various times—adopt this tactic. For the BJP that claims to be different from the Congress, this was not only a political defeat but also a new moral low. The Congress showed that its defence capabilities are superior to its past poaching offensives. We use words like “poaching” and “horse-trading” so much and so loosely that we have become desensitised to the grotesque reality: even today, our politicians are no better than animals, predators and preys, up for sale to the highest bidder. This is the 21st century. India aspires to be a global power. She is the world’s largest and most vibrant democracy. And yet, the undignified Karnataka spectacle testifies that little has changed in our political culture in the last 35 years.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>We now have start-ups and unicorns, glitzy malls and swanky urban buildings, but politics is still a wretched jungle. And for all our progress, caste continues to be embedded in political calculations. One only has to look at how candidates are still chosen for elections in various states.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>And then, there was the horrifying incident of the girl in Jharkhand who was brutally raped and burnt in her house.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Decades ago, in different states, I covered many incidents of rural atrocities and upper caste retribution against dalits. In one instance, upper caste men punished a dalit who dared to ask for higher wages by raping dalit women and setting fire to their entire village. In another instance, intercaste lovers were hanged to death. In yet another, the “offending” dalit was forced to eat human excreta.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>More than modernisation, urbanisation loosened the clutches of caste. Cities provide anonymity. But not so in the villages, where people know each other and are branded. Caste still remains deeply entrenched as narrated in the book—Black Coffee in a Coconut Shell— edited by Perumal Murugan. Neither academic nor intellectual, the book is about “caste as lived experience”. The writers confirm they are sucked into the discriminatory world of caste in their villages. As Perumal notes, “There is a lot of fear in talking about caste in the public sphere….The omnipresence of caste is similar to what is seen as god’s omnipresence.” There are 330 million gods, but casteism remains a powerful demon.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>India lives in her villages. And, we idealise our villages—green and serene. But they are also mean, where evils, that plagued Indian society for centuries, still persist. Translator C.S. Lakshmi observes, “The personal experiences clearly map how caste makes its insidious way into language, gestures, family, love and death and how its tentacles have extended into the politics of the nation.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Despite decades of education, awareness campaigns and laws, the demons of caste bigotry and political skulduggery still stalk us. How do you exorcise prejudice from people’s hearts and minds? What will it take to dignify our politics? When will we be rid of these iniquities?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/05/25/the-constants-caste-and-politics.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/05/25/the-constants-caste-and-politics.html Fri May 25 14:33:19 IST 2018 nothing-noble-about-this <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/05/11/nothing-noble-about-this.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2018/5/11/24-nothing-noble-about-this-new.jpg" /> <p>Sex, lies and leaks. You could be forgiven for thinking, “Been there, read that.” But, this is not a description of the White House. This is a description of the scandals roasting the venerable Swedish Academy of elderly men and women who award the Nobel Literature Prize.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The counterpoint to 71-year-old Donald Trump is Sweden’s cultural czar, the 71-year-old Jean-Claude Arnault, accused of sexually assaulting 18 young women over the past two decades—secrets revealed by the #MeToo movement. Several were aspiring writers. One of Arnault’s victims, author Gabriella Håkansson, accuses him of doing unto her what Trump had bragged of doing to women in that infamous audiotape. Euphemism is necessary because, appallingly, describing the activities of some political and cultural leaders these days is like writing porn! The Swedish newspaper Svenska Dagbladet quoted three sources who disclosed that they had witnessed Arnault groping the Swedish crown princess Victoria. Her father, King Carl XVI Gustaf, is the chief patron of the esteemed 232-year old academy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Arnault is married to Katarina Frostenson, an award-winning poet and Swedish Academy member since 1992. He is accused of corruption, being a sexual predator and leaking pillow talks. Investigations by legal firm Hammarskiöld &amp; Co reportedly concluded that prior to the official announcement, Arnault leaked the names of prize winners on seven occasions, including Harold Pinter in 2005 and Bob Dylan in 2016—disclosures that dramatically impact the betting industry. The firm recommended reporting Arnault to the police. But, the cultural caucus in most countries is usually a snobbish, incestuous cabal with deeply entrenched ties. Sexual abuse, lies, coverups and nepotism have surfaced—the academy gave funds to the couple’s cultural club. Arnault denies all allegations, claiming he is the victim of a “witch-hunt”. Did we just hear an echo?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Even though the Nobel Prize is the world’s most prestigious award, the Swedish Academy is an outdated institution that appoints members for life. Scandinavians now live well into their 80s and 90s, sometimes suffering dementia even if physically fit. Despite the outrageous revelations, the hidebound academy was initially immune to reform, provoking some members to quit. Arnault’s wife finally resigned. Says literary commentator Ingunn Økland, “Old traditions are charming until you realise they are thoroughly rotten. Time has come for full ventilation and reorganisation of the Swedish Academy.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>But reorganisation means different things to different people. To the iconoclastic August Strindberg, the “father” of modern Swedish literature, it meant complete overhaul. He never won the Nobel prize—apparently his enemies in the academy ensured that. Satirising Stockholm’s social hypocrisies, Strindberg famously wrote in 1880: “I want to turn everything upside down to see what lies beneath; I believe we are so webbed, so horribly regimented, that no spring-cleaning is possible, everything must be burned, blown to bits, and then we can start afresh.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>That’s too strong a prescription for the staid academy, despite the dynamiting of its reputation. Instead they promise reforms and a thorough cleaning that will take months. So, this year there will be no Nobel Prize for Literature. But the Nobel Peace Prize (given by Norway) will be awarded, and Trump supporters hope he will get it for North Korea. The statutes say nominations for the peace prize must reach the awarding committee before February 15. But, some say the deadline could be overlooked, and the nations involved could receive the coveted prize if there is a dramatic breakthrough in the Korean peninsula. But Trump is unpredictable. The Swedish Academy will close an ugly chapter, but a new one could begin for tempestuous Trump, titled Sex, Lies and War—with Iran, or Sex, Lies and Impeachment. It is Trump. Who knows? Bad! Sad! Stay tuned! Better to tweet than write porn.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/05/11/nothing-noble-about-this.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/05/11/nothing-noble-about-this.html Fri May 11 11:43:34 IST 2018 bold-macron-cautious-merkel <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/04/27/bold-macron-cautious-merkel.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2018/4/27/46-bold-macron-cautious-merkel-new.jpg" /> <p>Given a long rope, you can either hang yourself or climb and conquer. French President Emmanuel Macron is too optimistic and smart to hang or be hanged. Macron, who portrays himself as Emperor and Jupiter, aims to scale the summit of the European Mount Olympus. But, that is difficult because he is roped in by German Chancellor Angela Merkel.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Initially, the Merkel-Macron tango promised a new dawn of reforms to make the European Union (EU) “crises proof”. Now, the night promises to be dark and long. Macron pushes reforms (social, migration, defence and economic) as the antibiotic to kill the viruses of populism, xenophobia, financial crisis, euro-skepticism, anti-establishment anger and illiberalism that have rocked the bloc’s stability and values. Macron argues eloquently, “In front of authoritarianism that surrounds us everywhere, the answer is not authoritarian democracy, but the authority of democracy. In these difficult times, European democracy is our best chance.”</p> <p>&nbsp;If implemented, Macron’s Reformation 2.0 to rejuvenate economies and end the “civil war of ideas” could puncture Europe’s far-right parties. “I plan on ruining his lunch”, boasted the most famous British right-wing Brexiteer Nigel Farage before joining Macron. But, maverick Macron was mesmerising. Post-lunch, Farage purred, “Having listened to him, he is probably EU’s last chance.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Between the best and the last chance lies a vast contentious arena where competing interests complicate change. All EU members agree on reforms, but wrangle with conflicting “what’s in it for me” mentalities. Macron proposes a common EU budget, finance minister and a European Monetary Fund (a regional IMF) for the Eurozone (only 19 of the 27 EU countries adopted the Euro). This could better handle future financial crisis, as experienced by Greece, Ireland, Portugal and Spain.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Good idea, members concur. The Fund can bail us out, say southern countries like Italy and Spain, burdened by failing banks and sovereign debt. No way, say the northern Dutch and German neighbours: the fund will impose financial discipline, so you do not slip into crisis again. Stereotyping is embedded in this cultural gulf. Southern Europeans view the northerners of the cold climes as mirthless, nose to the grindstone, thrifty and austere Protestants. The northerners see the southerners living in sunny warmth as talkative, eyes to the skies, lazy, spendthrift, and good time Catholics.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Last year, Merkel said she could “imagine” Macron’s proposals taking shape. But now, election losses and her conservative base rein her imagination and Macron’s high hopes. Also, the pro-Macron Social Democrats, SPD, that joined Merkel’s coalition, backpedals. Establishing continuity with his hawkish predecessor, the new SPD finance minister Olaf Scholz says, “A German finance minister is a German finance minister, regardless of his party.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Still, both Merkel and Macron vow to rebuild Europe with reforms to be announced at the EU’s June summit. Merkel-Macron’s recent tango in Berlin suggests that instead of a racy synchronisation towards reform with kicks, gravity-defying lifts and dramatic drops, we may see small-stepped advances, bereft of tempo and temperature, theatre and twirls, moderate in movement and momentum—a la Saudi Ardah sword dance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Germany wields the sword in the EU, and draws some red lines regarding reforms. For instance, their taxes will not subsidise squandering southerners. Macron, who faces street protests against his own labour reforms back home, counters grandly: “I don’t see red lines. I only see horizons.” Sounds expansive, but not if you are standing at the bottom of Mount Olympus. Philippe Lamberts, member of the European Parliament, gifted Macron a coil of thick mountain-climbing rope, wisecracking that he will need it to reach his lofty ambitions. Jupiter could certainly do with a sturdy, long rope.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.&nbsp;</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/04/27/bold-macron-cautious-merkel.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/04/27/bold-macron-cautious-merkel.html Fri Apr 27 14:39:19 IST 2018 hungarys-own-trump <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/04/14/hungarys-own-trump.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2018/4/14/35-hungarys-own-trump-new.jpg" /> <p>Is one of Donald Trump’s role models Viktor Orban, the right-wing prime minister of Hungary who has just been resoundingly re-elected for a third consecutive term? For the past few years, Orban’s sizzling politics boils down to “Make Hungary Great Again” and “Hungary First”. He is a pioneer in Europe, with his brew of nationalism, populism and personality cult spilling across the western hemisphere.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>When a million refugees flooded Europe in 2015, Orban stridently defied German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s open door policy. Asserting his national sovereignty over her “moral imperialism”, Orban barbwired his border to stop the mostly Muslim refugees—perhaps inspiring Trump’s anti-Muslim and Mexican wall ideas. When he became president, Trump did not hesitate to snub “Old Europe”, the powerful founders of European Union like France and Germany that are not only engines of growth, but bastions of liberal values and open societies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Tensions have been rising between “Old” and “New” Europe—countries like Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Hungary—that were absorbed into the EU after the collapse of the Soviet Union. To the EU’s dismay, these countries are turning illiberal, populist and xenophobic, their governments corrupt and authoritarian. Hungary’s crackdowns on critical media, independent judiciary and vocal civil society violate European norms. Critics say Orban’s landslide can be explained partly by changes in laws that hamper opposition parties.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>But, Orban’s rising popularity is not in doubt.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>When the EU imposed austerity measures after the financial crisis, Orban introduced tax cuts. He railed against the “Muslimisation” of Europe. His demonisation of Muslims and tough measures against migrants flabbergasted the EU, but his stand is endorsed by most Hungarians who want their nation to remain Christian and white. The historic high voter turnout and the landslide underlines Orban’s real victory: he has won the war on immigration. Making his last election speech at his birthplace, Székesfehérvár, Orban told cheering crowds: “Immigration is the curse that slowly but surely devours our homeland, threatens our everyday security, our economic growth, our much needed resources to support families and pay pensions. With migration comes terror. And, it is clear as day—where there is mass migration, women are threatened with violent attacks.” Such views are shared not only by Trump, but by many European voters, fertilising the growth of far right parties. In response, even Merkel has toughened her stance on migrants, refining what were some of Orban’s policies such as strengthening borders and keeping refugees in their own countries.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Orban’s aggressive polices, fiery rhetoric and tough tactics have earned him a sobriquet—“Europe’s New Strongman”, to quote author Paul Lendvai. An “uncultured village boy” as he calls himself, Orban started as a lean, long-haired liberal, but over the years he metamorphosed into a stocky, short-haired nationalist proclaiming to restore Hungary’s past glory. In power, many of his actions are anti-democratic and un-European. In his village, Felcsút, he built a huge football stadium that can accommodate nearly 4,000 spectators. Local inhabitants number 1,700. European media accuses Orban of kleptocracy and misusing EU funds. The trio of the most powerful men in Hungary played football with him as teenagers.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Hungary’s economy is doing well, but the country faces challenging issues. Still, voters like Orban’s relatively poor to power, farm to fame story, the country bumpkin who studied law, even won a scholarship to Oxford to eventually challenge the aristocratic pro-European Hungarian elite. Orban is a pugilist politician, playing politics like a boxer. No compromises, only knock-out punches. He won. And, Trump—who habitually punches, but had to compromise on several issues because of the independent judiciary and media—has already begun to thump at the stumps for his re-election.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/04/14/hungarys-own-trump.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/04/14/hungarys-own-trump.html Sat Apr 14 12:53:50 IST 2018 stay-steady-merkel <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/03/16/stay-steady-merkel.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2018/3/16/26-stay-steady-merkel-new.jpg" /> <p>Angela Merkel has just become German Chancellor for the fourth time. It has been a rough six months, but her strength is that she remains unflustered amid turbulence, uncertainties and setbacks. As coalition talks dragged on fruitlessly for months, Merkel was criticised, her leadership undermined, her authority questioned, her political obituary written. Nicknamed 'Mutti' or Mum and 'Mother Europe', Merkel was weakened. But she stayed the course. Six months after a fractured election verdict, she has finally, painstakingly formed a coalition, forged after significant sacrifices, concessions and appeasing fierce critics.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Merkel’s conservative Christian Democratic Union (CDU) was the single largest party in the elections last September. But it was the party’s worst performance since World War II. People blamed Merkel for her policies that led to a million migrants, mostly Syrian refugees, flooding Europe in 2015. That provoked many voters to flee to the anti-migrant, far right AfD (Alternative für Deutschland), now the third largest party and entering the German parliament, the Bundestag, for the first time.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Merkel's CDU and its sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU), initially struggled for a coalition with the Green Party and the business-friendly Free Democratic Party. Talks collapsed due to the inherent contradictions. That left one choice—somehow woo the Social Democrats (SPD). Merkel’s CDU and SPD are Germany’s two main parties, but the SPD’s “grand coalition” partnership in the previous two Merkel governments alienated its traditional voters. They bled severely in the September elections, getting the least number of votes since World War II. They decided to sit in opposition and “reflect”.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>But contemplation has no place in realpolitik. Europe’s powerhouse needed a government. The ongoing political paralysis was creating a policy vacuum and economic uncertainty. In a painful concession, Merkel gave up the finance ministry —always held by her party—to lure the SPD into the grand coalition. For the past eight years, the job was held by CDU’s Wolfgang Schaeuble, a divisive figure whose rigid emphasis on fiscal discipline in the European Union was admired in Germany and northern European countries, while loathed in debt-ridden southern countries. In an interview with the public broadcaster ZDF, Merkel acknowledged the anger in her party, saying “I understand the disappointment. After so many years in which Wolfgang Schaeuble held the finance ministry, himself becoming an institution, it was hard for many of us that we couldn’t hold on to that ministry.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>This job profoundly impacts the EU. The SPD is more kindly disposed to French President Emmanuel Macron’s reforms for the European Union, but the German establishment is likely to remain tough on Eurozone debt. Analysts concur the SPD got the better end of the deal. Julian Reichelt, editor of Germany’s biggest selling paper, Bild, tweeted: “This is the first SPD government led by a CDU Chancellor.” Merkel also accommodated party opponents. She rewarded party critic Jens Spahn with the health ministry. Said she: “We need to show we can start with a new team. We need to ensure that not only the over-60s are considered [for cabinet posts], but also younger people.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Criticism of Merkel has turned to praise—for achieving generational change, reeling in her opponents and unifying her party. Acclaim or abuse, Merkel remains unflappable. Bitten as a child, Merkel is afraid of dogs. During a state visit to Moscow, President Vladimir Putin brought in his black Labrador, Konni, smirking while Merkel looked uncomfortable. But she sat through unruffled. Afterwards, she fired the ultimate put-down: “I understand why he has to do this—to prove he is a man. He is afraid of his own weakness.” It is a weakened Mutti who begins her fourth term with many challenges to tackle—terrorism, trade wars, Euro debt, migration, populism, anti-establishment movements. Germany and Europe needs Mutti’s steady hand.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/03/16/stay-steady-merkel.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/03/16/stay-steady-merkel.html Fri Mar 16 17:45:08 IST 2018 norways-39-olympic-medals <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/03/02/norways-39-olympic-medals.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita-Pratap/images/2018/3/2/16-norways-39-olympic-medals-new.jpg" /> <p>A thousand years ago, they wreaked havoc across the British Isles, plundering gold, burning villages and ransacking churches. Legends portray the marauding pagans as swift and merciless, prompting the quivering Celtic monks to pray: “Deliver us O Lord, from the fury of the Northmen.” Those heathen Vikings are now Christian and peaceful, but they recently went back home with a cache of gold, envied by the world. Norway, a tiny country of 5.2 million people, topped the Winter Olympics in Korea, also creating history with a record haul of 39 medals, including 14 golds. The three highest individual Olympic medal winners are also Norwegian.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>What accounts for Norway’s astounding success? Strong and well-muscled, Norwegian athletes look like cyborgs from outer space. Nutrition and fitness rank high in this rich country. Viking ancestry probably embeds swiftness in their DNA. There is plenty of snow in Norway. And, top athletes compete in biathlon and cross-country skiing, where they can win multiple medals. But, many of these factors apply to other top competitors like USA, Canada, and Germany that have populations many times larger than Norway.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Norway’s success comes from its unique socio-economic values, collective spirit and bottom-up system. Proud of their culture and determined to protect it from outside interference, Norwegians voted not once, but twice, to stay out of the European Union! Team spirit, trust, endurance, egalitarianism and inclusiveness are important, and are enshrined in politics, as in sports. There is zero tolerance for stars, divas and bad behaviour. Former olympic athlete Morten Aasen says, “We are a rich country, but we believe in the socialist way of doing things. Success comes from working hard and being together.”</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Every citizen is entitled to play sports, so Norway builds sports facilities everywhere, while other countries consecrate malls. Office closes at 4 pm, enabling employees many hours daily to hike, kayak or ski. Children’s daily routine includes sports, but in the Norwegian system there are no winners or losers until they are 12. Kids have fun, enjoying rather than competing, and, 93 per cent of them enrol in the 11,000 local sports clubs. This broadens the talent pool. Tom Tvedt, the president of Norway’s Olympic Committee says, “Our medals come from athletes who started in local clubs.” If they show promise, they are taken to the elite sports centre called “Olympiatoppen”. And, then, the other reasons for Norway’s medal success kick in: world class facilities, training, coaching, sports science and technological innovation —for example, advanced skis.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Americans lament they fared poorly compared to Norway. American sportsmen follow the money trail created by golf, football, soccer, baseball and basketball. Athletes are insufficiently funded by the state. American figure-skater Adam Rippon, a bronze-medallist in this Olympics, tweeted that during his training “he was so broke” he stole apples from his gym to save money. But, Norway’s sports budget is also small, and athletes cannot live on state grants. They all have day time jobs as carpenters, plumbers, farmers and teachers.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>High performance comes from motivation fueled by love for their sport. “Norwegians are born with skis on their feet,” is a popular saying. Johannes Høsflot Klæbo, the 21-year-old cross-country skier who won three gold medals epitomises this saying and the Norwegian system. His grandfather gifted him his first pair of skis when he was two years old, and, he belongs to the small Byåsen club in interior Norway. His name is unpronounceable, but, this six-feet-tall athlete has movie-star looks. No wonder, Donald Trump wants Norwegians to migrate to the US. They would also bring bushels of Olympic gold medals. A thousand years ago, and, 500 years before Christopher Columbus, Norwegians did land in America. But, they show no desire to migrate to Trumpland now.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Pratap is an author and journalist.</b></p> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/03/02/norways-39-olympic-medals.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/2018/03/02/norways-39-olympic-medals.html Sat Mar 03 16:10:37 IST 2018 oslos-wonder-woman <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/oslos-wonder-woman.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita%20Pratap/images/25-oslos-wonder-woman-week-new.jpg" /> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/oslos-wonder-woman.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/oslos-wonder-woman.html Fri Jan 19 15:13:16 IST 2018 muammar-gaddafi-kim-jong-un-donald-trump <a href="http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/muammar-gaddafi-kim-jong-un-donald-trump.html"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://img.theweek.in/content/dam/week/opinion/columns/Anita%20Pratap/images/22-Gaddafi-new.jpg" /> http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/muammar-gaddafi-kim-jong-un-donald-trump.html http://www.theweek.in/columns/Anita-Pratap/muammar-gaddafi-kim-jong-un-donald-trump.html Fri Dec 22 15:13:12 IST 2017