China has deployed an advanced surface-to-air missile system to one of the disputed islands it controls in the South China Sea, Taiwan and US officials said, ratcheting up tensions even as US President Barack Obama urged restraint in the region.
Taiwan defence ministry spokesman Major General David Lo said the missile batteries had been set up on Woody Island. The island is part of the Paracels chain, under Chinese control for more than 40 year but also claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam.
"Interested parties should work together to maintain peace and stability in the South China Sea region and refrain from taking any unilateral measures that would increase tensions," Lo said on Wednesday.
A US defence official also confirmed the "apparent deployment" of the missiles, first reported by Fox News.
Images from civilian satellite company ImageSat International show two batteries of eight surface-to-air missile launchers as well as a radar system, according to Fox News.
News of the missile deployment came as Obama and leaders of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations concluded a summit in California, where they discussed the need to ease tensions in the region but did not include specific mention of China's assertive pursuit of its claims in the South China Sea.
China claims most of the South China Sea, through which more than $5 trillion in global trade passes every year, and has been building runways and other infrastructure on artificial islands to bolster its claims.
"We discussed the need for tangible steps in the South China Sea to lower tensions including a halt to further reclamation, new construction and militarisation of disputed areas," Obama told a news conference.
The United States has said it will continue conducting "freedom of navigation patrols" by ships and aircraft to assure unimpeded passage through the region, where Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines and Taiwan have rival claims.
Mira Rapp-Hooper, a South China Sea expert from of the Center for a New American Security, said it was not the first time that China has sent such weapons to the Paracels, under Chinese control since 1974.
"I do think surface to air missiles are a considerable development," she said. "If they have been deployed they are probably China's effort to signal a response to freedom-of navigation operations, but I don't think it is a totally unprecedented deployment."
A US Navy destroyer sailed within 12 nautical miles of Triton Island in the Paracels chain last month in a move the Pentagon said was aimed at countering efforts by China, Vietnam and Taiwan to limit freedom of navigation. China condemned the US action as provocative.
China has said it would not seek militarisation of its South China Sea islands and reefs, but that did not mean it would not set up defences.
"Woody Island belongs to China," said Ni Lexiong, a naval expert at the Shanghai University of Political Science and Law.
"Deploying surface-to-air missiles on our territory is completely within the scope of our sovereign rights. We have sovereignty there, so we can choose whether to militarise it."
Taiwan President-elect Tsai Ing-wen said tensions were now higher in the region.
"We urge all parties to work on the situation based on principles of peaceful solution and self-control," Tsai said.
The missiles arrived at Woody Island over the past week, Fox News said. According to the images, a beach on the island was empty on February 3, but the missiles were visible by February 14, it reported.
A US official told Fox News the imagery viewed appears to show the HQ-9 air defence system, which has a range of 125 miles (200 km) and would pose a threat to any airplanes, civilian or military, flying close by.
Asked about the report, Bill Urban, a Pentagon spokesman, said: "While I cannot comment on matters related to intelligence, we do watch these matters very closely."